explains to be the minor ninth of the dominant root, and the remaining three notes to be the seventh, ninth, and third of the supertonic or secondary root; both these notes being already recognised as capable of being taken as roots in any key. The progressions of the component notes of the chord are the same as they would be in their positions in the respective fundamental discords of tonic and supertonic of which they form a part. His views of the capacity of the interval of the augmented sixth for being inverted as a diminished third are opposed to the practice of the greatest composers, who though they use the inversion rarely use it with great effect. He says: "This interval should not be inverted, because the upper note being a secondary harmonic and capable of belonging only to the secondary root, should not be beneath the lower, which can only belong to the primary root.' As in his views with respect to the sharp fifth and the minor thirteenth, the question cannot be said to be definitely settled. Thus the musical feeling of people of cultivated taste may still count for something, and it seems probable that if the inversion were vicious Bach and Beethoven would not have used it.
This is not the place to point out in what respects Dr. Day's hypothesis is vulnerable; theorists of very high standing repudiate the chords of the eleventh and thirteenth, and even cast doubts on the essential nature of the ninths; but whatever may be said of its hypothetical and as yet incompletely substantiated views it must be confessed that no other theory yet proposed can rival it in consistency and comprehensiveness. The strong adhesion given to it by one of our most distinguished living musicians, the Professor of Music at Cambridge, should be sufficient to recommend it; and the study of it, even if it lead to dissent on some points, can hardly fail to be profitable.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
DAY, John, one of the earliest of English musical typographers, began printing about 1549 in Holborn, a little above the Conduit. He afterwards dwelt 'over Aldersgate beneath Saint Martyns,' and subsequently had a shop in St. Paul's Churchyard. He used the motto 'Arise, for it is Day,' which was probably intended as a reference to the introduction of the Reformed religion, as well as a punning allusion to his own name. On March 25, 1553, he obtained a licence to print 'A Catechism in English with an A B C thereunto annexed,' and also the works of John Poynet, Bishop of Winchester, and Thomas Beacon, Professor of Divinity. He subsequently procured a patent to be granted to him and his son for printing the Psalms, etc. He was the printer of Fox's 'Acts and Monuments.' In 1582 he was Master of the Stationers' Company. He died July 23, 1584. The musical works printed by Day were 'Certaine Notes set forth in foure and three partes to be sung at the Morning, Communion and Evening Prayer.' 1560; 'The whole Booke of Psalmes in foure partes,' which may be sung to all Musicall Instruments,' 1563, reprinted in 1565; 'Songes of three, fower and five voyces composed and made by Thomas Whythorne,' 1571; 'The Psalmes of David' by William Damon, 1579. [Damon]
[ W. H. H. ]
DEANE, Thomas, Mus. Doc., born in the latter half of the 17th century, was organist at Warwick and Coventry. He composed a service and other church music, and in 1703 the instrumental music for Oldmixon's tragedy 'The Governor of Cyprus.' He is said to have been the first to perform a sonata of Corelli in this country in 1709. Many compositions by him for the violin are contained in the collection called 'The Division Violin.' He graduated as Doctor of Music at Oxford July 9, 1731.
[ W. H. H. ]
DEBAIN, Alexandre François, keyed instrument maker, born in Paris 1809. Originally foreman in a pianoforte factory, but in 1834 established a factory of his own. Has distinguished himself by the invention of several musical instruments, amongst others the Antiphonel—a kind of barrel-organ—the Harmonicorde—a combination of reeds and strings—and the Harmonium, or Orgue expressif. Died Nov. 77.
DEBORAH. An oratorio of Handel's, the words by Humphreys; completed Feb. 21, 1733; first performed at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, March 17, 1733. No less than 14 of the airs and choruses are founded on, adapted, or transferred, from other works of Handel's—Dixit Dominus (1707); the Passion (1716); the ode on Queen Anne's birthday (1715); the Coronation Anthems (1727). Deborah was revived by the Sacred Harmonic Society Nov. 15 1843.
DECANI. The words Decani and Cantoris are used to distinguish the two sides of the choir for the purposes of antiphonal singing in the Anglican Church. The names are derived from the position of the stalls of the Decanus or Dean and the Cantor or Precentor, which are the first on either side on entering the choir of a cathedral, the Dean always on the south side.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
DECRESCENDO, decreasing—the opposite of crescendo—consists in gradually lessening the tone from loud to soft. It is also expressed by dec., decresc., and by the sign . Whether there was originally any difference between decrescendo and diminuendo or not, at present the two terms appear to be convertible. There is a splendid instance of the thing, where both words are used, at the end of the first section of the Finale of Schubert's Symphony in C, No. 9, in a decrescendo of 48 bars from fff, the bass at the same time going down and down to the low G.
DEFESCH, William, a Fleming by birth, was organist of the church of Notre Dame at Antwerp, and in 1725 succeeded Alfonso D'Eve as chapel-master there, but was in 1731 dismissed on account of his ill-treatment of some of the choir-boys under his charge. He then came to England, and established himself in London, where, in 33, he produced an oratorio entitled