Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/451

From Wikisource
Jump to: navigation, search
This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

'Judith,' which enjoyed some degree of popularity, and in 45 another called 'Joseph.' Whilst at Antwerp he composed a mass for voices and orchestra. His published works comprise several sets of sonatas and concertos for stringed and other instruments, some solos for the violoncello, and a collection of canzonets and airs, and some single songs. He was an able violinist. An engraved portrait of him was published in London in 1757. He died about 1758.

[ W. H. H. ]

DEGREE. The word 'degree' is used to express the intervals of notes from one another on the stave. When they are on the same line or space they are in the same degree. The interval of a second is one degree, the interval of a third two degrees, and so on, irrespective of the steps being tones or semitones, so long as they represent a further line or space in the stave. Hence also notes are in the same degree when they are natural, flat, or sharp of the same note, as C and C♯, E and E♭; and they are in different degrees when, though the same note on an instrument of fixed intonation, they are called by different names, as F♯ and G♭, C and D♭♭.

DEGREE. For the degrees in music at the English Universities see Bachelor and Doctor. Since Bachelor was printed an addition has been made to the Oxford examination by requiring candidates to pass previously either Responsions or a local examination in English, Mathematics, Latin, and one of four modern languages—Greek, French, German, or Italian. Additions of a similar nature have also been made by Cambridge and Dublin, and the London University has adopted a report to the same effect. Thus the degree will henceforward be evidence of a certain general education as well as of musical attainments.

[App. p.609–10 "DEGREES, MUSICAL. Since the publication of the early part of the Dictionary the regulations as to Musical Degrees at Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin have undergone alterations, and these Degrees have been instituted at the University of London. The following rules are now in force:—

At Cambridge no candidate can be admitted to the examination for the Mus. Bac. degree unless he (a) have passed Parts I and II of the University 'Previous Examination'; or (b) have passed one of the Senior Local Examinations in certain specified subjects; or (c) have passed one of the 'Higher Local Examinations' of the University; or (d) produce the certificate of the 'Oxford and Cambridge Schools Examination Board.' These conditions are not, however, required of persons holding degrees of any British University other than those in music. The musical examination itself remains as before.

At Oxford, no candidate can be admitted to the degree for Mus. Bac. unless he produce either his Testamur for Responsions (or the 'Previous' Examination at Cambridge); or a higher certificate from the Delegates for the Examination of Schools; or a certificate that as a candidate in the Senior Local Examinations he has shown sufficient merit to be excused from Responsions; or that he has satisfied the Examiners of Senior Candidates in English, Mathematics, Latin, and in one of these four languages Greek, German, French, Italian. The musical examination remains as before.

At Dublin a similar literary or general examination is imposed upon candidates for musical degrees.

London. The candidate for B. Mus. must have passed the intermediate examination in music at least one year previously. He has to send in an exercise, with five-part vocal counterpoint, canon and fugue, and quintet string accompaniment. If this is approved, he will be tested by a further examination in practical harmony and thorough bass, counterpoint, canon, fugue, form, instrumentation and a critical knowledge of some selected classical composition. The candidate may, if he chooses, offer to be examined in playing at sight from a five-part vocal score, arid playing an accompaniment from a figured bass.

Every candidate for D. Mus. must have obtained the degree of B. Mus. and pass two subsequent examinations, of which the first is called the Intermediate D. Mus. examination. This includes the phenomena of sound in general, and the nature of aerial sound-waves, the special characteristics of musical sounds, and the more elaborate phenomena of compound sounds, musical scales of various nations, temperament, Greek and church modes, history of measured music, principles of melodial progression, history of harmony and counterpoint, theory of chords and discords and progression in harmony, the general distinction between physical and aesthetical principles, as bearing on musical forms and rules.

The final D. Mus. examination must be preceded by composition of an exercise with eight-part harmony with solo and fugue, and accompaniment for full orchestra. The examination comprises practical harmony of more advanced character, counterpoint, form, instrumentation, general acquaintance with the greatest composers, and critical knowledge of specified works. Candidates may offer playing at sight from full orchestral score and extempore composition on a given subject."]

[ C. A. F. ]

DEHN, SIEGFRIED WILHELM, musical writer, born at Altona 1796 [App. p.610 "Feb. 25, 1799"], died at Berlin 1858 [App. p.610 "April 21"]. His studies at the University of Leipsic were interrupted in 1813 by having to join the army against the French. On the restoration of peace he went to Plön and Leipsic, and in 1823 to Berlin, where he studied under Bernhard Klein in harmony and composition. He possessed strong literary tastes, and being a good linguist, made diligent researches on various subjects connected with music both in Germany and Italy, which he utilised in Marx's 'Berliner Musikzeitung' and other periodicals. In 1842, on the recommendation of Meyerbeer, he was appointed librarian of the musical portion of the royal library at Berlin, a choice he amply justified. He catalogued the entire collection, and added to it a number of valuable works scattered throughout Prussia, especially Poelchau's collection, containing, besides many interesting theoretical and historical works, an invaluable series of original MSS. of the Bach family. Dehn scored no less than 500 motets of Orlando Lasso, and copied for the press an enormous number of works by J. S. Bach. He it was who first published Bach's six concertos for various instruments (Peters, 1850); the concertos for one, two, and three pianofortes; and two comic cantatas. At his instigation Griepenkerl undertook his edition of Bach's complete works for clavier and organ (Peters, Leipsic). Dehn also published a collection of vocal compositions in 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 parts, called 'Sammlung älterer Musik aus dem XVI und XVII Jahrh.' (Crantz, Berlin). He succeeded Gottfried Weber in the editorship of the musical periodical 'Cæcilia' (Schott). He re-edited Marpurg's treatise on Fugue (Leipzig 1858), had translated Delmotte's work on Orlando Lasso, under the title 'Biographische Notiz über Roland de Lattre,' and was preparing a larger work on the same subject, from valuable materials collected with great labour, when he died. In addition to these and similar labours he conducted a large correspondence on musical subjects and formed many distinguished pupils, among whom may be mentioned Glinka, Kullak, A. Rubinstein, and F. Kiel. Among his friends were Kiesewetter and Fétis, for the latter of whom he collected materials equal to two volumes of his 'Biographie universelle.' His theoretical works were 'Theoretisch-praktische Harmonielehre' (Berlin 1840; 2nd edition Leipsic 1858); 'Analyse dreier Fugen … J. S. Bach's … und Bononcini's etc.' (Leipzig 1858), and 'Lehre vom Contrapunkt' (Schneider, 1859). The latter, published after his death by his pupil Scholz, contains examples and analyses of canon and fugue by Orlando Lasso, Marcello, Palestrina, etc. Dehn was a good practical musician and violoncellist.

[ M. C. C. ]

DEISS, Michael, musician to the Emperor Ferdinand I of Germany, for whose obsequies in 1564 he composed a motet for four voices, and eight other pieces, published by Joannelli in his 'Thesaurus Musicus.' Other motets of his are contained in Schad's 'Promptuarium Musicum.' Deiss's part-writing was fluent and natural for his time, as is shown in his motet 'Misit Herodes rex.'

[ M. C. C. ]

DELDEVEZ, ERNEST, born in Paris May 31, 1817, studied at the Conservatoire, where he was a pupil of Habeneck, and obtained the first violin prize in 1833, the second prize for fugue in 1837, and the second 'prix de Rome" in 1838 for his cantata 'La Vendetta,' which he subsequently revised and printed (op. 16). That he is not only a talented violinist and leader, but also a sound and melodious composer, is shown in his published works. These consist of songs, sacred choruses, 2 trios (op. 9 and 23), quartets (op. 10), a quintet (op. 22), concert-overtures (op. 1 and 3), symphonies (op. 2, 8, 15), besides some still unpublished; a 'Requiem' (op. 7), and dramatic works, besides others still in MS. Among his ballets performed at the Opera we may mention 'Lady Henriette' (3rd act), 'Eucharis' (1844), 'Paquita' (1846), and 'Vertvert' (1851), which contain much pleasing and brilliant music. This learned and conscientious musician has also published an Anthology of Violinists, 4 vols. (op. 19)—a selection of pieces by various composers, from Corelli to Viotti; a work 'Des Principes de la formation des intervalles et des accords'; the