produced the sound were made of wood instead of metal, by which the quality of tone was made softer and sweeter. The instrument appears to have been soon forgotten. A further modification was the æolomelodicon or choraleon, constructed by Brunner at Warsaw, about the year 1825, from the design of Professor Hoffmann in that city. It differed from the æolodion in the fact that brass tubes were affixed to the reeds, much as in the reed-stops of an organ. The instrument was of great power, and was probably intended as a substitute for the organ in small churches, especially in the accompaniment of chorals, whence its second name choraleon. It has taken no permanent place in musical history. In the æolopantalon, invented about the year 1830, by Dlugosz of Warsaw, the æolomelodicon was combined with a pianoforte, so arranged that the player could make use of either instrument separately or both together. A somewhat similar plan has been occasionally tried with the piano and harmonium, but without great success.
[ E. P. ]
AERTS, Egidius, born at Boom, 1822, died at Brussels, 1853; an eminent flutist and composer, studied under Lahon in the Conservatoire at Brussels. From 1837 to 1840 he travelled professionally through France and Italy, and on his return to Brussels studied composition under Fétis. In 1847 was appointed professor of the flute at the Conservatoire, and first flute at the Theatre. He composed symphonies and overtures, as well as concertos and other music for the flute.
[ M. C. C. ]
AFFETTUOSO (Ital.), or Con Affetto, 'with feeling.' This word is most commonly found in such combinations as 'andante affettuoso' or 'allegro affettuoso,' though it is occasionally placed alone at the beginning of a movement, in which case a somewhat slow time is intended. It is frequently placed (like 'espressivo' 'cantabile,' etc.) over a single passage, when it refers merely to that particular phrase and not to the entire movement. The German expressions 'Innig,' 'Mit innigem Ausdruck,' to be met with in Schumann and other modern German composers are equivalent to 'Aflettuoso.'
[ E. P. ]
AFFILARD, Michel l', a tenor singer in the choir of Louis XIV from 1683 to 1708, with a salary of 900 livres. His work on singing at sight, 'Principes très faciles,' etc., in which the time of the airs is regulated by a pendulum,—precursor of the metronome—passed through seven editions (Paris, 1691; Amsterdam, 1717.)
AFRANIO, lived in the beginning of the 16th century, a canon of Ferrara, and reputed inventor of the bassoon, on the ground of a wind instrument of his called Phagotum, which is mentioned, and figured in two woodcuts, at p. 179 of the 'Introductio in Chaldaicam linguam' of Albonesi (Pavia, 1539), a work dedicated by the author to his uncle Afranio. The instrument sufficiently resembles the modern bassoon or fagotto to make good Afranio's right; but the book does not appear to contain any account of it.
AFZELIUS, Arvid August, born 1785, a Swedish pastor and archaeologist; edited conjointly with Geijer a collection of Swedish national melodies, 'Svenska Folkvisor,' 3 vols. (Stockholm, 1814-16, continued by Arwidsson), and wrote the historical notes to another collection, 'Afsked af Svenska Folksharpan' (Stockholm, 1848).
AGAZZARI, Agostino, was a cadet of a noble family of Siena, and born on Dec. 2, 1578. He passed the first years of his professional life in the service of the Emperor Matthias. After a time he came to Rome, where he was chosen Maestro di Cappella at the German College (before 1603) at the church of S. Apollinaris, and subsequently at the Seminario Romano. An intimacy grew up between him and the well-known Viadana, of Mantua, and he was one of the earliest adopters of the figured bass. In the preface to his third volume of 'Motetti' (Zanetti, Rome, 1606), he gives some instructions for its employment. In 1630 he returned to Siena, and became Maestro of its cathedral, a post which he retained till his death, probably in 1640. Agazzari was a member of the Academy of the Armonici Intronati. His publications are numerous, and consist of Madrigals, Motetts, Psalms, Magnificats, Litanies, etc., republished in numerous editions at Rome, Milan, Venice, Antwerp, Frankfort, and elsewhere. His one substantive contribution to the scientific literature of music is a little work of only sixteen quarto pages, entitled 'La Musica Ecclesiastica, dove si contiene la vera diffinizione della Musica come Scienza non più veduta e sua nobilta' (Siena, 1638); the object of which is to determine how church music should best conform itself to the Resolution of the Council of Trent. Palestrina, however, had worked at a clearer practical solution of that problem than any which the speculations of a scientific theorist could possibly evolve. On the authority of Pitoni, a pastoral drama, entitled 'Eumelio,' has been ascribed to Agazzari. It was undoubtedly performed at Amelia, and printed by Domenico Domenici at Roncilione in 1614 (Allacci, 'Dramaturgia'); but no author's name is affixed either to music or libretto.
A short motett by Agazzari is given by Proske in the 'Musica divina' (Lib. Motettorum, No. lxv).
[ E. H. P. ]
AGITATO (Ital.), also Con Agitazione, 'agitated,' 'restless.' This adjective is mostly combined with 'allegro' or 'presto' to describe the character of a movement. In the somewhat rare cases in which it occurs without any other time-indication (e. g. Mendelssohn's 'Lieder ohne Worte,' Book i., No. 5, 'Piano agitato' [App. p.518 "The direction 'Piano agitato' is probably a mere misprint for the 'Poco agitato' found in German editions"]) a rather rapid time is indicated.
AGNESI, Maria Teresa, born at Milan, 1724; sister of the renowned scholar, Maria Gaetana Agnesi; a celebrated pianist of her
- Baini alone mentions this second appointment; but he is probably right.