an identical figure reappear in the different movements, as in the Sonatas in B♭, op. 106, and in A♭, op. 109, and the Quartet in B♭. Such a device as this was not altogether unknown to Mozart, who connects the Minuet and Trio of the Quintet in G minor, by making a little figure which appears at the final cadence of the Minuet serve as the basis of the Trio—the Minuet ending
and the Trio beginning
In a little Symphony of Haydn's in B major part of the Minuet reappears in the Finale; and the same thing is done by Beethoven in the C minor Symphony. In his Sonata called 'Les Adieux, l'Absence, et le Retour' (which is an instance of programme music), the last two movements, slow and fast, pass into one another; as is also the case in the Sonata Appassionata. In his Quartet in C♯ minor all the movements are continuous. The same device is adopted by Mendelssohn in his Scotch Symphony and Concertos, by Schumann in the D minor Symphony—the title of which expressly states the fact—and by Liszt in Concertos. Schumann also in his Symphonies in C and D minor connects his movements by the recurrence of figures or phrases.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
FORMES, Karl, bass singer, son of the sexton at Mühlheim on the Rhine, born Aug. 7, 1810. What musical instruction he had he seems to have obtained in the church choir; but he first attracted attention at the concerts for the benefit of the cathedral fund at Cologne in 1841. So obvious was his talent that he was urged to go on the stage, and made his début at Cologne as Sarastro in the Zauberflöte, Jan. 6, 42, with the most marked success, ending in an engagement for three years. His next appearance was at Vienna. In 1849 he came to London, and sang first at Drury Lane in a German company as Sarastro on May 30. He made his appearance on the Italian stage at Covent Garden, March 16, 1850, as Caspar in 'Il Franco Arciero' (Der Freischütz). At the Philharmonic he sang first on the following Monday, March 18. From that time for some years he was a regular visitor to London, and filled the parts of Bertram, Marcel, Rocco, Leporello, Beltramo, etc. In 1857 he went to America, since which he has led a wandering life here and there. [App. p.637 "he visited England again in 1888, appearing at Mr Manns's benefit concert, April 21. (Died Dec. 1889)"]
For volume, compass, and quality, his voice was one of the most magnificent ever heard. He had a handsome presence and excellent dispositions for the stage, and with self-restraint and industry might have taken an almost unique position.
His brother Theodore, 16 years his junior, born June 24, 1826, the possessor of a splendid tenor voice and great intelligence, made his début at Ofen in 1846, and from 57 to 64 was one of the most noted opera singers of Germany. He too has been in America, and is now singing second-rate parts at small German theatres.
[ G. ]
FORNASARI, Luciano, a bass singer, who made his appearance about 1828 on second and third-rate stages in Italy. In 1831 he was singing at Milan; the next three years he passed at New York. He sang at the Havana in 1835, and in 1836 in Mexico. Returning to Europe he obtained an engagement at Lisbon in 1840, and remained there two years. After this he made a tour in his native country, singing with success at Rome, Modena, Palermo, Turin, and Trieste. In 1843 (Fétis is wrong in fixing it in 1845) Fornasari appeared in London. Fétis says he had a good voice and sang with method. Mr. Chorley writes, 'The new baritone—as substitute for Tamburini—was a tall dashing man:—he possessed a very handsome face, a sufficient voice, though its quality was not pleasant—and pretension enough and to spare. He sang with bad method and confidence.' He continued to sing in London until 1846, after which he did not again appear.
[ J. M. ]
FORSTER & ANDREWS have been established at Hull as organ-builders since 1843. Amongst many instruments from their factory may be quoted the organs in the Kinnaird Hall, Dundee; St. Mary's, Leicester; Holy Trinity, Hull; and the 'City Temple' Congregational Chapel, London.
[ V. de P. ]
FORSTER, William, eminent instrument maker, born May 4, 1739, at Brampton, Cumberland, was son of William, and grandson of John Forster, makers of spinning wheels and violins. He was taught both trades by his father, and also learned to play on the violin. He came to London in 1759 and took up his abode in Prescott Street, Goodman's Fields, and for a time endured much privation from inability to obtain suitable employment. Ultimately he was engaged by a music seller on Tower Hill named Beck, and the violins made by him being much approved and quickly sold, he started in business on his own account in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane, whence he shortly removed into St. Martin's Lane, and speedily attained great reputation. Forster afterwards added to his business that of a music seller and publisher, and in that capacity in 1781 entered into an agreement with Haydn for the purchase and publication in England of that master's compositions, and between that date and 1787 published 83 symphonies, 24 quartets, 24 solos, duets and trios, and the 'Passione,' or 'Seven Last Words.' About 1785 he removed into the Strand (No. 348), where the business was carried on until the pulling down of Exeter 'Change. In 1795 he issued a copper medal or token, halfpenny size, bearing—Obverse, 'Wm. Forster, Violin, Tenor and Violoncello Maker, No. 348, Strand, London.' Prince of Wales's feathers in the field. Reverse. The melody of 'God save the King' in musical notation in the key of G. A crown in the field. above it 'God save the king,' beneath it '1795.'