him opportunities of hearing his chamber music performed, and he produced orchestral and choral works at various concerts on his own account. His overture Sacuntala, his grand opera Die Königin von Saba, produced at Vienna March 10, 1875, and more recently his so-called symphony 'Die ländliche Hochzeit' (the country wedding), have been much played, and have given Goldmark a more or less European reputation.
He has published several overtures and a Scherzo for Orchestra, a quintet and a quartet for Strings, Pianoforte pieces, and various Songs. The 'Country Wedding' was played by Charles Halle at Liverpool Nov. 27, 1877, and at the Crystal Palace March 2, 1878. [App. p.651 "his three-act opera 'Merlin' was produced in Vienna, Nov. 19, 1886. Selections from it were given at a Richter concert in the following year. A new symphony in E♭ was given at Pesth in 1887."]
[ G. ]
GOLDSCHMIDT, Otto, pianist, composer, and conductor, born Aug. 21, 1829, at Hamburg, where his father and grandfather resided as merchants; studied the piano and harmony under Jacob Schmitt and F. W. Grund. At the age of 14 he entered the Leipzig Conservatorium, where amongst his fellow students were Joachim and von Bülow [App. p.651 "note that Joachim and von Bülow, though studying at Leipzig, were not in the Conservatorium"]. From 1843 to 46 he studied the piano and composition as a pupil in Mendelssohn's class. In 1848 he was sent to Paris, with the view of continuing his studies under Chopin, whose acquaintance he made, and was present at the last concert given by him in the Salle Pleyel. He came to England in 1848, and in the following year played at the Musical Union, and at a concert of Mlle. Lind's at H. M. Theatre. In 1851 he went to America, succeeding Mr. Benedict as conductor of a series of concerts given by Mlle. Lind. He married that lady at Boston, U.S.A., on Feb. 5, 1852. From 53 to November 55 he and his wife resided at Dresden, and since 58 have lived in or near London. He conducted the Festivals held at Düsseldorf and Hamburg in 1863 and 66, and in 63 was appointed Vice-Principal of the Royal Academy of Music, then presided over by Sir Sterndale Bennett, with whom he edited 'The Chorale Book for England,' a collection of Chorales set to translations of German hymns by Miss C. Winkworth (Longmans, 1863). He composed the Oratorio 'Ruth' for the Hereford Festival of 1867, and it was subsequently performed in London, Düsseldorf, and Hamburg. He wrote additional accompaniments for Handel's 'Allegro' and 'Penseroso,' as well as for the 'Ode to St. Cecilia's Day,' and introduced these works for the first time in their entirety to English and German audiences since Handel's death. In 1875 the Bach Choir, an association of amateurs, was formed under his direction. At its first concert on April 26, 76, Bach's Mass in B minor, with additional accompaniments by Mr. Goldschmidt, was performed for the first time in England. The marked success of that performance, and the subsequent prosperity of the Choir, are due in a large measure to the earnestness and devotion of the conductor. Besides his Oratorio Mr. Goldschmidt has published a Pianoforte Concerto; a ditto Trio; Pianoforte Studies; Songs, and Part-songs. In 1861 he was elected Honorary Member of the Philharmonic Society, in 64 a Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, and in 76 the King of Sweden conferred on him the Royal Order of Wasa.
[ A. D. C. ]
GOLDWIN, John, was a pupil of Dr. William Child. On April 12, 1697, he was appointed successor to his master as organist of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. In 1703 he became also master of the choristers. He died Nov. 7, 1719. His Service in F is printed in Arnold's Cathedral Music, and Boyce and Page also printed some of his anthems; others remain in MS. in Tudway and at Ely Cathedral, where he is entered as Golding. 'I have set God—Goldwin' is a very favourite little anthem at cathedrals, melodious and agreeable.
[ W. H. H. ]
GOLTERMANN, Georg Eduard, a player and composer on the cello of some eminence, whose name is occasionally seen in concert programmes, born in Hanover 1825, and educated there and in Munich. He has held posts in Würzburg and in Frankfort, where he is now residing, and where on May 1, 1878, he celebrated his 25th anniversary as conductor. His concerto and other contributions to the repertoire of the cello are of value, since though not of great originality they are thoroughly well written for the instrument, pleasing, and effective. Another Goltermann—Louis, born also in 1825, but in Hamburg, and apparently no relation to the former—was for some time Professor of the Cello at Prague and afterwards a member of the court band at Stuttgart.
[ G. ]
GOMBERT, Nicolas, one of the most important and prolific composers of the 16th century, was born at Bruges, as we learn from the title-page of his motets, and was attached to the service of Charles V, though in what exact capacity is not known. That Josquin was his master is testified by Hermann Finck in his 'Practica Musica,' and M. Fétis has given us the quotation from the copy of this rare work in his possession. 'Nostro vere tempore' (the book was published in 1556) 'novi sunt inventores, in quibus est Nicolaus Gombert, Jusquini piæ memoriæ discipulus, qui omnibus musicis ostendit viam, imo semitam ad quærendas fugas ac subtilitatem, ac est author musices plane diversse a superiori. Is enim vitat pausas, et illius compositio est plena cum concordantiarum tum fugarum.' Gombert set to music a poem by Avidius on the death of Josquin, which was also set by Benedictus. Burney gives us the music of this, but 'after performing the tedious task of scoring the setting by Gombert, found its chief merit to consist in imitations of his master.' A great merit nevertheless, for Gombert, a mere lad when Josquin died, persevered in his imitations so successfully that he not only came to be looked upon as his master's greatest pupil, but was able in due time, and when his own genius became mature, to engrave his name on a separate link in the chain of musical history. In the hands of his predecessors, in Josquin's especially,
- The Introduction of frequent pauses had become very common in music. Philip Basiron is censured for giving way to this 'fashionable folly' (Burney, vol. ii. p. 5S3).