Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/634

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to which its merits entitle it. Hitherto we are not aware of its having ever been performed here in public. [App. p.654 "the 'Tod Jesu' was performed at an orchestral concert given by the Royal Academy of Music on April 1, 1887, under the direction of Mr. Barnby."]

Graun's instrumental compositions, trios, pianoforte concertos, etc., have never been published and are of little value. He wrote 31 solfeggi, which form an excellent singing method, and he invented the so-called 'Da me ne satio' a putting together of the syllables, da, me, ni, po, tu, la, be, for the practice of solfeggio, which however has been little used. Graun died at Berlin 8 August 1759, in full enjoyment of the king's favour, illustrious among his contemporaries, and, after Hasse, undoubtedly the chief composer of Italian opera of his time.

[ A. M. ]

GRAUPNER, Christoph, composer, born 1683 or 84 at Kirchberg in Saxony, near the Erzgebirge; came early to Leipzig, where he studied nine years at the Thomas-schule under Cantors Schelle and Kuhnau. He began to study law, but was driven by the Swedish invasion to take refuge in Hamburg, where he passed three years as harpsichord player at the opera under Keiser. The Landgrave Ernst Ludwig of Hesse Darmstadt, then staying in Hamburg, having appointed him his vice-Capellmeister, he removed in 1710 to Darmstadt, and in the same year was promoted to the Capellmeistership on the death of Briegel. Here he did much to elevate both sacred and dramatic music, and greatly improved the court performances, the excellence of which is mentioned by Telemann. In 1723 he was proposed, together with Bach and Telemann, for the post of Cantor at the Thomas-schule (when Bach was elected), but he preferred remaining in Darmstadt. In 1750 he lost his sight, a great trial to so active a man, and died May 10, 1760, in his 78th year.

Graupner worked almost day and night; he even engraved his own pieces for the clavier, many of which are very pleasing. Of his operas the following were produced in Hamburg:—'Dido' (1707), 'Hercules und Theseus', 'Antiochus in Stratonica', 'Bellerophon' (1708), and 'Simson' (i.e. Samson—1709) After this he wrote only church and chamber music. Between the years 1719 and 45 he composed more than 1300 pieces for the service in the Schloss-kirche at Darmstadt—figured chorales, pieces for one and more voices, and chorales with accompaniment for organ and orchestra. The court library at Darmstadt contains the autograph scores and the separate parts of these, which were printed at the Landgrave's expense; Superintendent Lichtenberg furnished the words. The same library also contains in MS. 50 concertos for different instruments in score; 80 overtures; 116 symphonies; several sonatas and trios for different instruments in various combinations, mostly in score; 6 Sonatas for the harpsichord, with gigues, preludes, and fugues. Of his printed works there also exist 8 'Partien' for the Clavier {1718); 'Monatliche Clavier-Früchte', consisting of preludes, allemandes, courantes, sarabandes, minuets, and gigues (Darmstadt 1722); 'Die vier Jahreszeiten', 4 suites for clavier (Frankfurt 1733); and 'VIII Partien auf das Clavier,' dedicated to the Landgrave Ernst Ludwig (Darmstadt 1726). We must also mention his 'Neu vermehrtes Choralbuch' (Frankfurt, Gerhardt, 1728). Graupner's autobiography is printed in Mattheson's Ehrenpforte, page 410.

[ C. F. P. ]

GRAVE. One of the slow Tempos, indicating perhaps rather character than pace. As familiar instances may be given the opening movement of the Overture to the Messiah, the short Choruses in plain counterpoint in Israel in Egypt—'And Israel saw', 'He is my God', etc.; the two recitatives, 'As God the Lord', in Elijah; 'The nations are now the Lord's' in St. Paul; 'What ailed thee' in the 114th Psalm; the 'Rex tremendæ' in Mozart's Requiem; the Introduction to the Sonata Pathetique, and that to the Prison scene in Fidelio. In Elijah Mendelssohn marks it Figure rythmique noire hampe bas.svg = 60, but in St. Paul Figure rythmique noire hampe bas.svg = 66.

[ G. ]

GRAVICEMBALO. An Italian corruption of the term Clavicembalo, a harpsichord.

[ A. J. H. ]

GRAY & DAVISON. Robert Gray established an organ factory in London in 1774, was succeeded by William Gray, who died in 1820, and then by John Gray. In 1837–38 the firm was John Gray & Son, after which John Gray took Frederic Davison into partnership. Gray died in 1849, but the firm continues to bear the same title. Amongst the many organs erected by these favourite makers all over the country, we may mention those in the Crystal Palace (Handel orchestra), St. Paul's, Wilton Place, and St. Pancras, London; Magdalen College, Oxford; and the Town Halls of Leeds, Bolton, and Glasgow.

In 1876 they took up the business of Robson, and have also a factory in Liverpool, having succeeded Bewshur in that town.

[ V. de P. ]

GRAZIANI, Signor, [App. p.654 "Francesco, born at Fermo, April 26, 1829"] a singer who appeared in London first at the Royal Italian Opera in 1855. He made his début in the 'Trovatore', then also produced here for the first time. In this 'the song Il balen exhibited to its best advantage one of the most perfect baritone voices ever bestowed on mortal. Such an organ as his is a golden inheritance; one, however, which has tempted many another beside himself to rely too exclusively on Nature' (Chorley). Graziani has continued to sing in London and Paris, with almost undiminished powers, since that time. His voice, though not extensive downwards, has still beautiful and luscious tones, reaching as high as G, and even A. He appeared with great effect as Nelusco in the 'Africaine' when that opera was first produced in London. [App. p.654 "His brother, Lodovico, born at Fermo, August 1823, was a tenor singer of some celebrity. He died in May 1885."]

[ J. M. ]

GREATOREX, Thomas, son of a professor of music, was born at North Wingfield, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, on 5 October, 1758. In 1772 he became a pupil of Dr. Benjamin Cooke. In 1774, at a performance of sacred music in St. Martin's church, Leicester (of which his sister was then organist), on occasion of the opening of the Leicestershire Infirmary, he had the good fortune to make the acquaintance of the Earl of Sandwich and Joah Bates. The earl invited him to become an inmate of his house, and