Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/655

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H (pronounced Ha) is the German name for B natural, B flat being called by them B. It was originally 'B quadratum,' or b, a letter which would easily slip by degrees into h or h. [See Accidentals, 19a.] In solfaing it is Si.

H major is a key rarely used Beethoven's principal movement in it is the Adagio of the P.F. concerto in E flat. H minor is the key of Schubert's very fine unfinished Symphony, and of his equally fine Entracte in Rosamunde; of Mendelssohn's Capriccio brilliant; and of Chopin's 1st Scherzo. In a sketch-book of 1815–16, in the margin of a passage intended for the finale of the Cello Sonata op. 102, No. 2, Beethoven has written 'h moll schwarze Tonart.'

[ G. ]

HABENECK, François Antoine, born at Mezieres, Jan. 22, 1781, [App. p.662 "June 1"] eldest of three brothers (Joseph and Corentin), violinists, sons of a German musician in a French regimental band. He was a pupil of Baillot, obtained the first violin prize at the Conservatoire in 1804, and soon showed remarkable aptitude as a conductor—his real vocation. He was successively appointed assistant professor at the Conservatoire (1808–16), solo violin at the Opéra (1815), director of the 'Académie de Musique' (1821–24), conductor of the theatre de l'opéra, conjointly with Valentino from 1824 to 31, and alone from 31 to 47. In 1825 a special violin class was formed for him at the Conservatoire, which he retained till Oct. 1848. Among his pupils may be mentioned Cuvillon, Alard, Clapisson, and Léonard. Habeneck has the merit of having founded (1828) and conducted for 20 years the 'Société des Concerts du Conservatoire.' He was also the first to introduce Beethoven's symphonies in France, steadily persevering against all opposition, and at length executing them with a force, sentiment, and delicacy, which are not likely to be soon surpassed. As a conductor he was exacting, and unmerciful to singers who did not keep strict time. Out of respect to Cherubini he never exercised his office of 'Inspecteur général des classes du Conservatoire,' but he was an energetic director of Louis Philippe's concerts at the Tuileries. He composed violin music, several pieces for 'Aladin' (1822), and a ballet 'Le Page inconstant' (1823). This distinguished musician and conductor died in Paris, Feb. 8, 1849. He received the Legion of Honour in 1822. For many curious anecdotes of Habeneck, see the 'Memoires' of Berlioz.

[ G. C. ]

HAESER, August Ferdinand, born at Leipzig, Oct. 15, 1779; was educated at the Thomasschule, and in 1797 appointed professor and cantor at Lemgo. From 1806 to 1813 he passed in Italy, then returned to Germany, and settled in 1817 at Weimar, where he was music-master in the Duke's family, and taught mathematics and Italian at the gymnasium. He was also chorus-master at the theatre, and director of music at the principal church (1829). He composed an oratorio, 'Der Glaube,' to Klopstock's words; masses, motets, and other church music; an opera, 'Die Mohren'; overtures; P.F. music for 2 and 4 hands; and 18 songs. Two motets, in plain counterpoint throughout, melodious and finely harmonized though somewhat chromatic, are included in Mr. Hullah's Vocal Scores. He published 'Versuch einer systematischen Uebersicht der Gesanglehre' (Breitkopf & Härtel, 1820); and 'Lehrbuch des Gesanges' (Schott, 1831), translated into French by Jelensperger; and contributed to various musical periodicals. He died at Weimar, Nov. 1844.

[ M. C. C. ]

HÄUSER, Johann Ernst, born at Quedlinburg 1803, deserves mention as author of 'Musikalisches Lexicon' (Meissen, 1828; 2nd ed. enlarged, 1833), a useful work in two small volumes. His other works are 'Der musikalische Gesellschafter' (Meissen, 1830), a collection of anecdotes; 'Neue Pianoforte Schule' (Halberstadt, 1832; 2nd. ed. Quedlinburg, 1836); 'Musikalisches Jahrbüchlein' (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1833); and 'Geschichte des … Kirchengesanges, und der Kirchenmusik' (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1834), 1 vol. with examples, said to be a good book.

[ M. C. C. ]

HAFNER. A name sometimes given to Mozart's Symphony in D (Köchel, No. 385),

{ \key d \major \override Score.Rest #'style = #'classical \time 4/4 \tempo \markup { \smaller \italic "Allegro con spirito." } \relative d' { d1_\markup { \smaller \italic unis. } \grace { d16[ d'] } d'2... d,,16 cis4 cis'' r r8. cis,,16 b4 b8. b16 b4.\trill a16 b a4 } }

to distinguish it from his 13 others in the same key. It was composed at the end of July and beginning of Aug. 1782, for the wedding of a daughter of the Hafners at Salzburg, one of the great merchant families of Germany. On July 21, 1776, another daughter of the same house had been married, and for that occasion Mozart furnished a March and Serenade (Köchel, Nos. 249, 250) for Orchestra, also in the key of D.

[ G. ]

HAGUE, Charles, Mus. Doc., was born at Tadcaster in 1769 [App. p.662 "May 4"]. He was taught music and the violin by an elder brother. In 1779 he removed with his brother to Cambridge, where he was placed under Manini for the violin, and Hellendaal, sen., for thorough bass and composition. On the death of Manini in 1785, Hague