tongue,' 'O Nightingale,' and others, have long held, and will doubtless long continue to hold, a foremost place in the estimation of lovers of that class of composition. He died June 12, 1858. He married Elizabeth Hutchins, eldest daughter of Dr. Calcott, who survived him until Jan. 20, 1875. During Mendelssohn's visit to England in 1829 he began an acquaintance with the Horsley family which ripened into an intimate friendship, as is evident from the letters printed in 'Goethe and Mendelssohn.'
Horsley's son, Charles Edward, was born in London in 1822 [App. p.679 "Dec. 16"], and instructed in music by his father, and in the pianoforte by Moscheles. His promise was so great that he was sent, in 1839, on Mendelssohn's advice, to study under Hauptmann at Cassel, whence he afterwards went to Leipsic and enjoyed the friendship and instruction of Mendelssohn himself. Whilst in Germany he produced several instrumental compositions, amongst them a Trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, and an overture, the latter performed at Cassel in 1845. Returning to England he became organist of St. John's, Notting Hill, and produced several important works—'David' and 'Joseph,' oratorios, both composed for the Liverpool Philharmonic Society, and 'Gideon,' oratorio, composed for the Glasgow Musical Festival, 1860; an anthem for the consecration of Fairfield Church, near Liverpool, 1854; and music for Milton's 'Comus,' besides many pieces for the pianoforte, songs, etc. In 1868 he quitted England for Australia, and there he wrote an ode entitled 'Euterpe,' for solos, chorus and orchestra, for the opening of the Town Hall, Melbourne, in 1870. After remaining in Melbourne for some time, he removed to the United States, and died at New York, March 2 [App. p.679 "Feb. 28"], 1876. A 'Text Book of Harmony' by him was published posthumously in Dec. 76, by Sampson Low & Co.
HORTENSE, Eugénie de Beauharnais, daughter of Josephine, Queen of Holland and mother of Napoleon III, known as 'La reine Hortense,' born in Paris April 10, 1783, died at Viry, Oct. 5, 1837, the reputed authoress (at Utrecht, 1807) of both words and melody of 'Partant pour la Syrie,' an air which has been said to have been to the Empire what the 'Marseillaise' was to the Republic. Her musical knowledge was very slight, but in Drouet she had a clever musician for secretary, who has left an amusing account of the manner in which he was required to reduce into form the melodies which she hummed. Whether Drouet or the Queen of Holland were the real author of the pretty tune in question, it is certain that she will always be credited with it.
[ M. C. C. ]
HOSANNA, a Hebrew word, hoshia na, meaning 'Save now!' (Psalm cxviii. 25), used as an exclamation of triumph in Matt. xxi. 9, etc. In its Latin form Osanna in excelsis it occurs in the Mass, after both Sanctus and Benedictus. [Osanna.] [App. p.679 "[Mass.] "] In English music the word will always live in the grand anthem of Orlando Gibbons, 'Hosanna to the Son of David,' the subject of which is introduced by Sullivan in the 'Light of the World.'
[ G. ]
HOTHBY, or OTTEBY, John, an English Carmelite monk, who lived in the latter half of the 15th century, and passed the greater part of his life in the Carmelite monastery at Ferrara, was famous for his skill in the science of music. He was author of a treatise on the Proportions of Music, Cantus figuratus and Counterpoint, MS. copies of which exist at Ferrara and Bologna, in the National Library at Paris and the British Museum (Add. MS. 10,336). It is printed by Coussemaker, 'Scriptorum de Musica Medii sevi,' iii. 328.
[App. p.679–80 "It should be mentioned that the treatise beginning 'Quid est Proportio,' of which there are copies at the British Museum and Lambeth Palace, is not identical with the 'Regulæ super proportionem' of the Paris, Venice, and Bologna libraries. In the national library at Florence is a MS. containing several works by Hothby; namely, (1) Ars musica; (2) a dialogue on the same subject, in which the author quotes, among others, Dunstable, Dufay, and even Okeghem; (3) a letter in Italian, refuting the censures of Osmense, a Spaniard; (4) 'Calliopea legale,' a musical treatise, of which there is another copy at Venice. This last work is interesting as giving an account of the transition from neumes to square notes. Another important MS. of Hothby's was formerly at Ferrara, but has been lost: besides a 'Kyrie,' a 'Magnificat,' and other musical compositions, it contained the following short treatises, of which there are copies in the Liceo Communale at Bologna:—(1) the above-mentioned 'Regulæ super proportionem'; (2) 'De Cantu figurato'; (3) 'Regulæ super Contrapunctum'; (4) 'Manus per genus diatonicum declarata'; (5) 'Regulæ de Monochordo manuali.' Among other minor works are a 'Tractatus quarundum regularum artis musices' at Florence, and a second treatise on Counterpoint, beginning 'Consonantia interpretatur sonus cum alio sonans,' in the Paris MS. Little is known of the life of John Hothby, Ottobi or Octobi, as he is still called in Italy. The Paris MS. styles him a Doctor of Music; but whether he took his degree at an English or foreign University does not appear. After leaving the monastery at Ferrara he is supposed to have taken up his residence at Florence, where he was held in great honour in 1471. The British Museum MS. of 'Quid est proportio' is dated 1500, and it is probable that Hothby died soon after this at an advanced age.
[ A. H.-H. ]
HOWARD, Samuel, Mus. Doc., born 1710, a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Croft, and subsequently a pupil of Pepusch; was afterwards organist of St. Clement Danes, and St. Bride, Fleet Street. In 1744 he composed the music for 'The Amorous Goddess, or, Harlequin Married,' a pantomime produced at Drury Lane. In 1769 he graduated as Doctor of Music at Cambridge. He composed numerous songs and cantatas (many of which appeared under the name of 'The British Orpheus,' in several books, and others in various collections), sonatas, and other pieces for instruments. He assisted Boyce in the compilation of his 'Cathedral Music.' He died in 1782. An anthem of his, with orchestra, 'This is the day,' was published in 1792. A melodious song by him, 'O had I been,' from 'Love in a Village,' is given in the Musical Library, vol. iii.
HOWELL, James, was born at Plymouth. Possessing a fine voice he was, at an early age, taught singing, and at 10 years of age sang in public. He was brought to London in 1824 and in the next year admitted a pupil of the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied singing under Rovedino and afterwards under Crivelli, and the pianoforte and clarinet under T. M. Mudie. He subsequently learned the double bass under Anfossi, and made such rapid progress that he decided upon making it his especial instrument. He continued a pupil of the Academy for about 5 years, during part of which time he acted as sub-professor of the double bass. On the cessation of his pupilage he was appointed a Professor and afterwards Associated honorary member of the Academy. He soon took his place in all the best orchestras, and on the death of Dragonetti in 1846 succeeded him as principal. [App. p.680 "Died Aug. 5, 1879."]
His elder son, Arthur, is an excellent double bass player and bass singer; and his younger son, Edward, holds the post of principal violoncello at the Royal Italian Opera. [App. p.680 "Died April 16, 1885."]
HOWGILL, William, organist at Whitehaven in 1794, and afterwards in London; published 'Four Voluntaries, part of the 3rd chapter of the Wisdom of Solomon for three voices, and Six favourite Psalm Tunes, with an accompani-
- See Letter Jan. 17, 1839, in 'Goethe and Mendelssohn,' 116.
- Ibid. March 15, 1841.
- A selection from this work was performed at the Crystal Palace March 25, 1876.
- See Pougin's supplement to Fétis, art. Drouet.