for some years at Vienna, he was called, in 1816, to the post of conductor to Stuttgart, and subsequently, in 1820, to Weimar, from whence, in the suite of the grand-duchess Maria Paulowna he went to Russia, and there met with a reception, the cordiality of which was not exceeded, and rarely equalled, in the various journeys he undertook between 1825 and 33 to France, Holland, and England, where in the latter year he conducted operas.
Hummel's compositions consist of three operas; music to a 'Faerie,' to five pantomimes or ballets, all more or less stillborn; two masses, op. 80 and 111; a Graduale and an Offertorium, op. 88 and 89, which are still to be met with in the churches of Austria and elsewhere; and, besides the pianoforte works already mentioned, of a number of Sonatas, Etudes, and miscellaneous display pieces for two or four hands, a couple of Trios, a Quintet, etc.
[ E. D. ]
HUMORESKE. A title adopted by Schumann for his Op. 20 and Op. 88, No. 2, the former for Piano solo, the latter for Piano, Violin, and Cello. Heller and Grieg have also used the term for pianoforte pieces—op. 64 and op. 9 and 16 respectively. There is nothing obviously 'humorous' in any of these, and the term 'caprice' might equally well be applied to them. Rubinstein also entitles his Don Quixote 'Humoreske,' but the 'humour' is there of a much more obvious and boisterous kind.
[ G. ]
HUMPHREYS, Samuel, was employed by Handel to make additions to the libretto of his oratorio 'Esther,' to fit it for public performance in 1732. He subsequently provided him with the words of 'Deborah' and 'Athaliah.' He was also author of 'Ulysses,' an opera set to music by John Christopher Smith, and of a poem on the Duke of Chandos's seat at Canons. He died at Canonbury, Jan. 11, 1738, aged about 40 years.
HUNGARIAN MUSIC. [See Magyar.]
HUNT, Arabella, singer, lutenist, and singing mistress, was the instructress in singing of the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne. She was also a favourite of Queen Mary, who made her one of her personal attendants in order that she might have frequent opportunities of hearing her sing. Many of the songs of Purcell and Blow were composed for her. The beauty of her person equalled that of her voice. Congreve wrote an ode 'On Mrs. Arabella Hunt singing,' which is mentioned by Johnson as the best of his irregular poems. She died Dec. 26, 1705. After her death an engraving from her portrait by Kneller was published, with some panegyrical lines by Congreve (not from his ode) subjoined.
HUNT, Thomas, contributed to 'The Triumphes of Oriana,' 1601, the 6-part madrigal, 'Hark! did you ever heare so sweet a singing?' An anthem by him, 'Put me not to rebuke,' is contained in Barnard's MS. collection in the Sacred Harmonic Society's library. Nothing is known of his biography.
HUNTER, Anne, a Scotch lady, wife of John Hunter the surgeon, and sister of Sir Everard Home the physician. She was born 1742, and died 1821. The Hunters lived in Leicester Square during Haydn's first visit, and were intimate with him. Mrs. Hunter wrote the words for his 12 Canzonets (1792), of which the first six were dedicated to her and the second six to Lady Charlotte Bertie. Hunter's death (Oct. 16, 1793) put a stop to the acquaintance. Mrs. Hunter published a volume of poems (1801; 2nd ed. 1803), which are condemned by the Edinburgh and praised by Blackwood. She was also probably the author of both words and melody of 'Lady Anne Bothwell's Lament.' She is mentioned in Robert Burns's MS. 'Edinburgh Commonplace-Book,' and two poems by her—'To the Nightingale, on leaving E[arl's] C[ourt], 1784,' and 'A Sonnet in Petrarch's manner'—are there copied out by the Poet, the only poems which received that distinction.
[ G. ]
HURDY GURDY (Fr. Vielle; Ital. Lira tedesca, Ghironda ribeca, Stampella, Viola da orbo; Germ. Bauernleier, Deutscheleier, Bettlerleier, Drehleier; Latinised, Lyra rustica, Lyra pagana). Has a place among musical instruments like that of the Dulcimer and the Bagpipes, as belonging to rural life, and quite outside modern musical art. It is true that in the first half of the last century the Hurdy Gurdy or Vielle contributed to the amusement of the French higher classes, but evidently with that affectation of rusticity so abundantly shown when mock shepherds and shepherdesses flourished. Mr. Engel ('Musical Instruments,' 1874, P. 235) gives several titles of compositions wherein the Vielle formed, in combination with Bagpipes (Musette), Flutes (of both kinds), and Hautbois, a Fête Champêtre orchestra. M. G. Chouquet ('Catalogue du Musée du Conservatoire,' Paris, 1875, p. 23) adds, for the instrument alone, sonatas, duos, etc., by Baptiste and other composers, and two methods for instruction by Bouin and Corrette. This music of a modern Arcadia seems to have culminated about 1750 in the virtuosity of two brothers, Charles and Henri Baton, the former playing the Vielle, which he had much improved, the latter the Musette. Their father, a luthier at Versailles, was a famous Vielle maker, who about 1716–20 adapted old guitars and lutes and mounted them as hurdy-gurdies. Other eminent makers were