Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/15

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was his most frequent custom; he could use it with facility, and execute ornaments of a certain class with volubility and sweetness. His shake was good, and his intonation much more correct than is common to singers so imperfectly educated.… He had a bold and manly manner of singing, mixed however with considerable feeling, which went to the hearts of his countrymen. He sang like a true Englishman.… His forte was ballad, and ballad not of the modern cast of whining or wanton sentiment[1], but the original manly energetic strain of an earlier and better age of English poesy and English song-writing, uch as 'Black-eyed Susan' and 'The Storm,' the bold and cheering hunting song, or the love song of Shield, breathing the chaste and simple grace of genuine English melody.' All who had heard Incledon's singing of 'The Storm' (which he sang in character as a sailor) were unanimous in pronouncing it unique, both as a vocal and an histrionic exhibition. Of the songs written expressly for him it may suffice to mention Shield's 'Heaving the lead' and 'The Arethusa.'

Charles Venanzio Incledon, his eldest son, originally engaged in agricultural pursuits, but on Oct. 3, 1829, appeared at Drury Lane Theatre as Young Meadows in 'Love in a Village,' and shortly afterwards played Tom Tug in Dibdin's 'Waterman.' Meeting however with but very moderate success he returned to his former avocation, and, it is believed, emigrated to one of the colonies.

[ W. H. H. ]

INGANNO, i.e. Deception. Any false or deceptive Cadence, in which the Bass proceeds, from the Dominant, to any other note than the Tonic:—

{ << \new Staff \with {midiInstrument = #"church organ"} \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \time 4/4 \partial 2 \relative c'' << { c2 ~ c b c1 \bar "||" } \\ { g2 ~ g g f1 } >>
\new Staff \with {midiInstrument = #"church organ"} { \clef bass \relative e' << { e2 d1 c } \\ { c,2 g1 a } >> } >> }

[ W. S. R. ]

INGLOTT, William, born 1554, became organist of Norwich Cathedral. He was distinguished for his skill as a performer on the organ and virginals. He died in Dec. 1621 aged 67, and was buried Dec. 31 in the cathedral, where on the west side of the southern pillar adjoining the entrance to the choir a painted monument to his memory was placed June 15, 1622. Nearly 90 years afterwards the monument, having become dilapidated, was restored at the expense of Dr. Croft. An engraving of it in its restored state is given in 'The Posthumous Works of Sir Thomas Browne,' 1712.

[ W. H. H. ]

INITIALS, ABSOLUTE. Though it is not necessary that a Plain Chaunt Melody should begin on the Final, Dominant, or even Mediant, of the Mode in which it is written, the choice of the first note is not left entirely to the Composer's discretion. He can only begin upon one of a series of sounds, selected from the Regular or Conceded Modulations of the Scale in which he writes, and invariably occupying the first place in all Plain Chaunt Melodies referable to that Scale. These sounds are called Absolute Initials. Their number varies, in different Modes; no Tonality possessing less than three, or more than six: and, among them, there are a few, which, though freely permitted, by law, are, in practice, very rarely used.

In the following Table, the letters, enclosed in brackets, denote the more unusual Initials: while those printed in Italics indicate that the sounds they represent are to be taken in the lower Octave, even though they should thus be brought beyond the normal bounds of the Mode.

Mode I. C. D. F. G. A.
Mode II. A. C. D. F. [E.]
Mode III. E. [F.] G. C.
Mode IV. C. D. E. F. [G.] [A.]
Mode V. F. A. C.
Mode VI. F. [C.] [D.]
Mode VII. G. [A.] B. C. D.
Mode VIII. C. D. F. G. A. C.
Mode IX. G. A. C. D. E.
Mode X. E. G. A. C. [B.]
(Mode XI.) B. [C.] D. G.
(Mode XII.) G. A. B. C. [D.] [E.]
Mode XIII. C. [D.] E. G.
Mode XIV. [G.] [A.] C. [D.]

The selection of some of these sounds may seem, at first sight, a little arbitrary: but, in truth, it is sometimes very difficult to decide upon a suitable first note. This is particularly the case with regard to Antiphons, the first notes of which exercise a marked effect upon the Tones to which the corresponding Psalms are sung. It will be remembered that the entire Antiphon is always repeated, immediately after the Psalm. It follows, therefore, that, unless care be taken to bring the last note of the Ending of the Psalm Tone into true melodic correspondence with the first note of the Antiphon, forbidden intervals may arise. By a careful arrangement of the Absolute Initials, the earlier writers on Plain Chaunt did their best to reduce the danger of introducing such intervals to a minimum. [See Antiphon; Modes, the ecclesiastical.]

[ W. S. R. ]

INNIG. A word used by Beethoven during his German fit (op. 101, ist movement; 109, last do.; 121b), and Schumann (op. 12, 'Den Abends'; op. 24, No. 9; op. 56, Nos. 2 and 4, Manfred music, No. 2, etc.) to convey an intensely personal, almost devotional, frame of mind.

[ G. ]

IN NOMINE. A somewhat vague name, bestowed, by old English writers, on a certain kind of Motet, or Antiphon, composed to Latin words. It seems to have been used, in the first instance, for compositions the text of which began with the words in question, or in which those words were brought prominently forward: such as the Introit, 'In nomine Jesu'; the Psalm, 'Deus, in nomine tuo'; and other similar cases. But its signification certainly became more extended: for Butler, writing in 1636, commends 'the In nomines of Parsons, Tye, and Taverner,' just as we should commend the Madrigals of Weelkes, or Morley, or Gibbons. The name is even employed for instrumental pieces.

  1. This was written in 1818, during Incledon's absence in America.