Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/234

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specially praising her singing; and she also won the admiration of both Hasse and Gerbert. After the death of the parents, and of Metastasio, who left them well off, she and her sister gave evening parties, which were frequented by all the principal artists. On one of these occasions Kelly[1] heard Marianne play a 4-hand sonata of Mozart's with the composer. Latterly Marianne devoted herself to teaching talented pupils. In 1773 she was made a member of the Musical Academy of Bologna. In 1782, the 'Tonkünstler Societät' performed her oratorio 'Isacco,' to Metastasio's words. She also composed two more oratorios, a mass, and other sacred music; Psalms, to Metastasio's Italian translation, for 4 and 8 voices; solo-motets, arias, and cantatas, concertos, and sonatas for clavier, overtures and symphonies. The Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde possesses the autographs of many of these works. Marianne expired on the 13th of Dec. 1812, a few days after the death of her younger sister Antonie.

[ C. F. P. ]

MARTINI, Giovanni Battista, or Giambattista, commonly called Padre Martini, one of the most important scientific musicians of the 18th century, born at Bologna, April 25, 1706; was first taught music by his father Antonio Maria, member of a musical society called 'I Fratelli.' Having become an expert violinist, he learned to sing and play the harpsichord from Padre Predieri, and counterpoint from Antonio Riccieri, a castrato of Vincenzo, and composer of merit. At the same time he studied philosophy and theology with the monks of San Filippo Neri. Having passed his noviciate at the Franciscan convent at Lago, he was ordained on Sept. 11, 1722, and returning to Bologna in 1725 became maestro di capella of the church of San Francesco. Giacomo Perti held a similar post at San Petronio, and from him Martini received valuable advice on composing church-music, at the same time laying a scientific foundation for the whole theory of music by a conscientious study of mathematics with Zanotti, a well-known physician and mathematician. He thus gradually acquired an extraordinary and comprehensive mass of knowledge, with an amount of literary information far in advance of his contemporaries. His library was unusually complete for the time[2], partly because scientific men of all countries took a pleasure in sending him books. Burney, whose own library was very extensive, expressed his astonishment at that of Martini, which he estimates to contain 17,000 vols. ('Present State of Music in France and Italy,' p. 202). After his death a portion found its way to the court library at Vienna the rest remained at Bologna in the Liceo Filarmonico. His reputation as a teacher was European, and scholars flocked to him from all parts, among the most celebrated being Paolucci, Ruttini, Sarti, Ottani, and Stanislas Mattei, afterwards joint founder of the Liceo Filarmonico. These he educated in the traditions of the old Roman school, the main characteristic of which was the melodious movement of the separate parts. Martini was also frequently called upon to recommend a new maestro di capella or to act as umpire in disputed questions. He was himself occasionally involved in musical controversy; the best-known instance being his dispute with Redi about the solution of a puzzle-canon by Giovanni Animuccia, which he solved by employing two keys in the third part. This, though approved by Pitoni, was declared by Redi to be unjustifiable. To prove his point Martini therefore wrote a treatise maintaining that puzzle-canons had not unfrequently been solved in that manner, and quoting examples. Another important controversy was that held with Eximeno [see Eximeno]. In spite of these differences of opinion his contemporaries describe him as a man of great mildness, modesty, and good nature, always ready to answer questions, and give explanations. It is difficult to think without emotion of the warm welcome which he, the most learned and one of the oldest musicians of his country, bestowed on Mozart when he visited Bologna in 1770 as a boy of 14, or to resist viewing it as a symbol of the readiness of Italy to open to Germany that vast domain of music and tradition which had hitherto been exclusively her own. His courtesy and affability brought the Bolognese monk into friendly relations with many exalted personages, Frederic the Great and Frederic William II of Prussia, Princess Maria Antonie of Saxony, and Pope Clement XIV among the number. He suffered much towards the close of his life from asthma, a disease of the bladder, and a painful wound in the leg; but his cheerfulness never deserted him, and he worked at the fourth volume of his History of Music up to his death, which took place in 1784—on October 3, according to Moreschi, Gandini, and Della Valle; on August 4 according to Fantuzzi. His favourite pupil Mattei stayed with him to the last. Zanotti's requiem was sung at his funeral, and on December 2 the Accademia Filarmonica held a grand function, at which a funeral mass, the joint composition of 13 maestri di capella, was performed, and an 'Elogio' pronounced by Lionardo Volpi. All Italy mourned for him, and a medallion to his memory was struck by Tadolini. He was a member of two 'Accademie,' the 'Filarmonici' of Bologna, and the 'Arcadici' of Rome, his assumed name in the latter being Aristoxenus Amphion.

Martini's two great works are the 'Storia della Musica' (3 vols., Bologna, 1757, 70, 81), and the 'Esemplare ossia Saggio … di contrapunto' (2 vols., Bologna, 1774, 75). The first is a most learned work; each chapter begins and ends with a puzzle-canon, the whole of which were solved and published by Cherubini. The three volumes all treat of ancient music;

  1. Kelly's mistakes of detail are innumerable. He gives the name 'Martini,' and imagining Marianne to be the sister of her father—'a very old man' and 'nearly his own age'—speaks of her as 'in the vale of years,' though still 'possessing the gaiety and vivacity of a girl.' She was barely 40.
  2. He had 10 copies of Guido d'Arezzo's Micrologos.