the music of the middle ages down to the 11th century was to have been the subject of the 4th vol., which he did not live to finish. A report having sprung up that the completed MS. was in the Minorite convent at Bologna, Fétis obtained access to the library through Rossini, but found only materials, of which no use has yet been made. The 'Saggio' is a most important collection of examples from the best masters of the ancient Italian and Spanish schools, and a model of its kind. Besides a number of small treatises and controversial writings (for list see Fétis) Martini left masses and other church music in the style of the time. The following were printed: 'Litaniæ' op. 1 (1734); 'XII Sonate d'intavolatura,' op. 2 (Amsterdam, Le Cene, 1741), excellent and full of originality; 'VI Senate per organo e cembalo' (Bologna 1747); 'Duetti da Camera' (Bologna, 1763). The Liceo of Bologna possesses the MSS. of two oratorios, 'San Pietro' (two separate compositions), and 'L'Assunzione di Salomone al trono d'Israele'; a farsetta 'La Dirindina'; and 3 Intermezzi, 'L'Impresario delle Canarie,' 'Don Chisciotto,' and 'Il Maestro di Musica.' A requiem (103 sheets), and other church compositions are in Vienna. Pauer, in his 'Alte Klaviermusik,' gives a gavotte and ballet of Martini's. Farrenc has published 12 sonatas in his 'Trésor musical,' and other works are given by Lück, Körner, Ricordi, etc. The best of many books on his life and works is the 'Elogio' of Pietro Della Valle (Bologna, 1784).
MARTYRS, LES. Opera in 4 acts; words by Scribe, music by Donizetti. Produced at the Académie, April 10, 1840; at the Royal Italian Opera, as 'I Martiri,' April 20, 1852. The work was an adaptation of Poliuto, a former Italian opera of Donizetti's.
[ G. ]
MARX, Adolph Bernhard, learned musician and author, born May 15, 1799, at Halle, son of a physician, learned harmony from Türk, studied law, and held a legal post at Naumburg. His love of music led him to Berlin, where he soon gave up the law, and in 1824 he founded with Schlesinger the publisher the 'Allgemeine Berliner Musikzeitung.' This periodical, which only existed seven years, did important service in creating a juster appreciation of Beethoven's works in North Germany, a service which Beethoven characteristically refers to in a letter to Schlesinger, Sept. 25, 1825. His book on the same subject, however, 'Beethoven's Leben und Schaffen' (Berlin, 1859, 2nd ed. 1865, 3rd 1875), is a fantastic critique, too full of mere conjecture and misty æstheticism. In 1827 he received his doctor's diploma from the university of Marburg, and was made 'Docent,' or tutor, in the history and theory of music at the university of Berlin. He became Professor in 1830, and in 1832 Musikdirector of the university choir. In 1850 he founded with Kullak and Stern the 'Berliner Musikschule,' afterwards the 'Berliner Conservatorium,' but withdrew in 1856 (Kullak having resigned in '55), and henceforth devoted himself to his private pupils and to his work at the University. He died in Berlin, May 17, 1866. His numerous works are of unequal merit, the most important being the 'Lehre von der musikalischen Composition,' 4 vols. (Breitkopf & Härtel, 1837, 38, 45). His 'Gluck und die Oper' (Berlin, 2 vols. 1862) contains many ingenious observations, but is of no historical value. Besides what he did for Beethoven's music, Marx deserves credit for bringing to light many little-known works of Bach and Handel. His compositions are not remarkable; neither his oratorios 'Johannes der Taufer,' 'Moses,' and 'Nahid und Omar,' nor his instrumental music, obtaining more than a 'succès d'estime.' Nevertheless some particulars given in his 'Erinnerungen' (Berlin, 1865) as to his manner of composing are well worth reading, as indeed is the whole book for its interesting picture of the state of music in Berlin between 1830 and 60. With Mendelssohn he was at one time extremely intimate, and no doubt was in many respects useful to him; but his influence diminished as Mendelssohn grew older and more independent.
MARXSEN, Eduard, born July 23, 1806, at Nienstädten near Altona, where his father was organist. He was intended for the church, but devoted himself to music, which he studied at home and with Clasing of Hamburg. He then assisted his father till the death of the latter in 1830, when he went to Vienna, and took lessons in counterpoint from Seyfried, and the pianoforte from Bocklet. He also composed industriously, and on his return to Hamburg gave a concert (Oct. 15, 1834) at which he played 18 pieces of his own composition. He has since lived at Hamburg in great request as a teacher. Brahms is the most remarkable of his pupils. Of his 60 or 70 compositions, one for full orchestra called 'Beethoven's Schatten' was performed in 1844 and 45 at concerts in Hamburg. [App. p.712 "date of death, Nov. 18, 1887."]
MARYLEBONE GARDENS. This once celebrated place of entertainment was situate at the back of and appurtenant to a tavern called 'The Rose of Normandy' (or briefly 'The Rose'), which stood on the east side of High Street, Marylebone, and was erected about the middle of the 17th century. The earliest notice of it is in 'Memoirs by Samuel Sainthill, 1659,' printed in 'The Gentleman's Magazine,' vol. 83, p. 524, where the garden is thus described: 'The outside a square brick wall, set with fruit trees, gravel walks, 204 paces long, seven broad; the circular walk 485 paces, six broad, the centre square, a Bowling Green, 112 paces one way, 88 another; all except the first double set with quickset hedges, full grown and kept in excellent order, and indented like town walls.' It is next mentioned by Pepys, May 7, 1668: 'Then we abroad to Marrowbone and there walked in the garden, the first time I ever was there, and a pretty place it is.' Long's bowling green at the Rose at Marylebone, half a mile distant from London, is mentioned in the London
- Nohl, Briefe, No. 363.