and even translated a small treatise on tobacco. This extraordinary versatility, and his untiring industry, go far to redeem the vanity which animated his character and actions, and continually shows itself in his writings. His autobiography in the 'Ehrenpforte' contains an amusingly egotistical description of his manifold labours. His more important books are scarce, and much valued, especially the historical ones, which are the standard sources of information on the state of music at that period, especially in Hamburg. These are 'Das neu eröffnete Orchester' (1713), followed by 'Das beschützte' and 'Das forschende Orchester '(1717 and 1721); 'Der musikalische Patriot' (1728); and the 'Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte' (1740), a collection of biographies of contemporary musicians. The two last are the most important. His theoretical works are the 'Exemplarische Organisten Probe' (1719),republished in 1731 as the 'Grosse Generalbassschule; [App. p.715 "'Critica Musica' (1722)"] the 'Kleine Generalbassschule' (1735); the 'Kern melodischer Wissenschaft' (1737); and finally the 'Vollkommene Capellmeister' (1739), perhaps his most valuable work. As a controversial writer he was wanting in temper; his 'Ephorus Göttingensis' (1727), directed against Professor Joachim Meyer of Gottingen on the Church-cantata question, is the only work of that class we need specify.
[ A. M. ]
MATHILDE DI SHABRAN. Opera buffa, in three acts; the music by Rossini. Produced at the Apollo Theatre, Rome, in the Carnival of 1821, and at the Théatre Italien, Paris, Oct. 15, 1829; in London at the Royal Italian Opera, Co vent Garden, Apr. 18, 1854. [App. p.715 "For the date of the production of the work in Paris, read 1857, and for that of the first performance in London, read July 3, 1823. It took place at the King's Theatre."]
[ G. ]
MATILDA OF HUNGARY. A dramatic opera in 3 acts; libretto by Mr. Bunn, music by W. Vincent Wallace. Produced at Drury Lane Feb. 22, 1847.
MATINS (Lat. Matutinae; Officium matutinum). The first division of the Canonical Hours.
The Office of Matins, as set forth in the Roman Breviary, opens with the series of Versicles and Responses beginning with the 'Domine, labia mea aperies,' followed by the Psalm 'Venite, exultemus,' with its proper Invitatorium, and the Hymn appointed for the Day. The remainder of the Service is divided into portions called Nocturns, of which three are generally sung, on Sundays and Festivals, and one only, on Ferial Days.
The First Nocturn consists either of three, or twelve Psalms, sung with three proper Antiphons, which, on certain Festivals, are doubled—that is to say, sung, entire, both before and after the Psalm. On Ferial Days, and Festivals of minor solemnity, each Antiphon is sung, entire, after the Psalm, but the first few words of it, only, at the beginning. The Psalms are followed by the Pater noster, Absolution, and Benediction; and these, by the First, Second, and Third Lessons for the Day, each succeeded by its proper Responsorium.
Three Psalms, with their proper Antiphons, are sung, in like manner, in the Second Nocturn; which concludes with the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Proper Lessons, and Responsories.
In the Third Nocturn, three more Psalms are followed by the Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Lessons and Responsories; the place of the Ninth Responsory being generally, but not always, supplied by the Hymn, 'Te Deum Laudamus.'
The Third Nocturn is immediately followed by the Office of Lauds; which, indeed, may be regarded as the natural corollary of the Service. In antient times, the First Nocturn was sung soon after midnight: but the whole Office is now generally sung 'by anticipation' that is to say, on the afternoon or evening of the day before that for which it is appointed. The Plain Chaunt Music used, both at Matins, and Lauds, will be found in the 'Antiphonarium Romanum,' and the 'Directorium Chori.' [See Lauds; Antiphon; Invitatorium.]
In the First Prayer-Book of King Edward VI, the name of 'Mattins' is given to the Service now called 'The Order for Morning Prayer,' which is derived, in about equal degrees, from the Latin Offices of Matins and Lauds.
[ W. S. R. ]
MATRIMONIO SEGRETO, IL. An opera buffa in 2 acts; libretto by Bertatti, music by Cimarosa. Produced at Vienna in 1792; in Paris, May 10, 1801; in London, King's Theatre, Jan. 25, 1803. In English at Covent Garden, Nov. 1, 1842, and with new translation by W. Grist, at the Crystal Palace, Dec. 13, 1877.
[ G. ]
MATTEI, Colomba, a singer who appeared in London as 'seconda donna,' in 1754, was not only a charming singer, but a spirited and intelligent actress, and became, soon after, a great favourite as 'prima donna.' She sang in 'Ipermestra,' and (1755) in Jommelli's 'Andromaca;' and continued to sing till 1760 with similar success. Burney tells us that she was a pupil of Perez and Bertoni, and sang many songs of their composition, taught her by themselves, in an exquisite style. 'Her manner, though not quite in the grand gusto, was extremely amiable and pleasing; her figure was unexceptionable; and her acting acquired her as much applause as her singing.'
[ J. M. ]
MATTEI, Stanislao, Abbate, pupil of Martini, and master of Rossini, born at Bologna Feb. 10, 1750. Though of humble parentage (his father was a locksmith) he was sent to the Latin school. Having been present accidentally at a service in the Minorite Convent, he was so enchanted with the music that he became a constant attendant, and thus attracted the notice of Padre Martini, by whose advice he entered upon his noviciate. Master and pupil became tenderly attached, and as soon as Mattei had been ordained he became the Padre's confessor, and remained with him till his death. He acted as Martini's deputy from 1770, and succeeded him as maestro di capella. From 1776 his compositions were produced in the service. On the suppression of the monasteries in 1798, he went to live with his aged mother, and began an active career as a teacher. From this time he was