Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/351

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from B, to the next E but one; the Mixed Lydian, from C, to the next F but one; and the Mixed Mixolydian, from D, to the next G but one. [See Maneria.]

A very fine example of Mixed Mixolydian, (Modes VII and VIII, combined), is to be found in the Melody of 'Lauda Sion.' [See Lauda Sion.]

Polyphonic Music for unequal Voices is always, of necessity, written in Mixed Modes: since, if the Treble and Tenor sing in the Authentic Mode, the Alto and Bass will naturally fall within the compass of its Plagal congener; and, vice versa. The Composition is, however, always said to be in the Mode indicated by its Tenor part.

[ W. S. R. ]

MIXED VOICES. The English term for a combination of female and male voices, as opposed to 'Equal voices,' which denotes male or female voices alone. Thus Mendelssohn's part-songs for S.A.T.B. are for mixed voices, and those for A.T.T.B. for equal voices.

[ G. ]

MIXOLYDIAN MODE. (Lat. Modus Mixolydius; Modus Angelicus.) The Seventh of the Ecclesiastical Modes. [See Modes, the Ecclesiastical.]

The Final of the Mixolydian Mode is G. Its compass, in the Authentic form, extends upwards from that note to its octave; and its semitones occur between the third and fourth, and the sixth and seventh degrees. Its Dominant is D, its Mediant, C (B being rejected, on account of its forbidden relations with F), and its Participant, A. Its Conceded Modulations are B, and E; and its Absolute Initials, G, B, C, D, and sometimes, though not very frequently, A. The subjoined example will give a clear idea of its most prominent characteristics:—

Mode VII.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \relative g' { \cadenzaOn g1^"Fin." a^"Part." b( c)^"Med." d^"Dom." e( f) g \bar "||" s } }

In its Plagal, or Hypomixolydian form, (Mode VIII, Modus Hypomixolydius. Modus perfectus), its compass lies a Fourth lower—from D to D; and the semitones fall between the second and third, and the sixth and seventh degrees. The Dominant of this Mode is C; B being inadmissible, by reason of its Quinta falsa with F. Its Mediant is F—for which note A is sometimes, though not very frequently, substituted, in order to avoid the false relation of Mi contra Fa, with B. [See Mi contra Fa.] Its Participant is the lower D. Its Conceded Modulations are, the upper D, and B; and its Absolute Initials, the lower C, (below the normal compass of the mode), D, F, G, A, and C.

Mode VIII.

{ \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \relative d' { \cadenzaOn d1^"Part." e( f)^"Med." g^"Fin." a b( c)^"Dom." d \bar "||" s } }

In performance, Mode VII is almost always transposed, in order to escape the high range of its upper notes. Mode VIII, on the contrary, lies well within the compass of ordinary Voices.

The Antiphon, 'Asperges me,' as given in the Roman Gradual, and the Sarum Melody of 'Sanctorum meritis,' printed in the Rev. T. Helmore's 'Hymnal Noted,' may be cited as highly characteristic examples of the use of Mode VII; and an equally perfect illustration of that of Mode VIII will be found in the Melody of 'Iste confessor,' as given in the Roman Vesperal.[1]

In Polyphonic Music, the Mixolydian Mode is used, with great effect, both in its Authentic and Plagal form. We can scarcely call attention to a finer instance of the use of the VIIth mode than Palestrina's Missa 'Dies sanctificatus'; or, of that of the VIIIth, than his Missa 'Iste confessor.'

[ W. S. R. ]

MIXTURE. An organ stop ordinarily furnished with from two to five comparatively small pipes to each key. It is compounded of the higher-sounding and therefore shorter members of the 'foundation' and 'mutation' classes of stops, combined or 'mixed,' and arranged to draw together, as they, practically, are seldom required to be used separately. The Mixture represents or corroborates the higher consonant harmonic sounds suggested by nature, and in the bass produces tones to the third or fourth octave above the unison or chief foundation tone. As the musical scale ascends, the higher harmonics become weak and inaudible to the ear; hence in a Mixture stop it is customary to discontinue the higher ranks as they ascend, one or more at a time, and insert in lieu a rank of lower tone than was previously in the stop, but appearing as a separate stop. This alteration is called a 'break.' These return-ranks serve the best of purposes. In a Pianoforte it is well known that the strings increase in number from one in the bass to two higher up, and afterwards to three, to preserve an evenness in the tone. In a similar manner the return-ranks, when well managed, considerably reinforce the strength of the treble part of the organ. [Mutation.]

[ E. J. H. ]

MIZLER (Mitsler), Lorenz Christoph, born at Heidenheim, Wurtemberg, July 25, 1711, died at Warsaw March 1778; was educated at the Gymnasium of Anspach and the University of Leipzig. He was one of Bach's scholars. In 1734 he became a magistrate, and was generally a cultivated and prominent person. His claim to perpetuity is his connexion with the 'Association for Musical Science,' which he founded at Leipzig in 1738 and kept together. Amongst its members were Handel, Bach, and Graun. Bach composed a 6-part Canon and the Canonical Variations on 'Vom Himmel hoch,' as his diploma pieces. Mizler wrote a treatise on Thorough Bass (Generalbasslehre), in which he seems to have pushed the connexion of music and mathematics to absurdity. (See Spitta, Bach, ii. 502–506. [App. p.719 "iii. 22–25"])

[ G. ]

MOCK DOCTOR, THE. The English version, by Chas. Kenny, of Barbier and Carré's adaptation of Gounod's 'Médecin malgré lui'; produced at Covent Garden, Feb. 27, 1865.

[ G. ]

  1. Care must be taken to distinguish these Melodies from the Roman 'Sanctorum meritis,' and the Sarum 'Iste confessor', which are not in the Modes here indicated.