32 of the Prelude in E♭, No. 19, in which the transitions overlap in such a way as to recall the devices of Haydn and Mozart, though the material and mode of expression are so markedly distinct.
From this short survey it will appear that the direction of modern music in respect of modulation has been constant and uniform. The modern scales had first to be developed out of the chaos of ecclesiastical modes, and then they had to be systematised into keys, a process equivalent to discovering the principle of modulation. This clearly took a long time to achieve, since composers moved cautiously over new ground, as if afraid to go far from their starting-point, lest they should not be able to find a way back. Still, the invention of the principle of passing from one key to another led to the discovery of the relations which exist between one key and another; in other words, of the different degrees of musical effect produced by their juxtaposition. The bearings of the more simple of these relations were first established, and then those of the more remote and subtle ones, till the way through every note of the scale to its allied keys was found. In the meanwhile groups of chords belonging to foreign keys were subtly interwoven in the broader expanses of permanent keys, and the principle was recognised that different individual notes of a key can be taken to represent subordinate circles of chords in other keys of which they form important integers, without destroying the sense of the principal tonality. Then as the chords belonging to the various groups called keys are better and better known, it becomes easier to recognise them with less and less indication of their relations; so that groups of chords representing any given tonality can be constantly rendered shorter, until at length successions of transitory modulations make their appearance, in which the group of chords representing a tonality is reduced to two, and these sometimes not representing it by any means obviously.
It may appear from this that we are gravitating back to the chaotic condition which harmony represented in the days before the invention of tonality. But this is not the case. We have gone through all the experiences of the key-system, and by means of it innumerable combinations of notes have been made intelligible which could not otherwise have been so. The key-system is therefore the ultimate test of harmonic combinations, and the ultimate basis of their classification, however closely chords representing different tonalities may be brought together. There will probably always be groups of some extent which are referable to one given centre or tonic, and effects of modulation between permanent keys; but concerning the rapidity with which transitions may succeed one another, and the possibilities of overlapping tonalities, it is not safe to speculate; for theory and analysis are always more safe and helpful to guide us to the understanding of what a great artist shows us when it is done, than to tell him beforehand what he may or may not do.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
MODULATIONS, REGULAR AND CONCEDED. (Lat. Modulations [vel Clausulæ] regulares et concessæ). The Composer of a Plain Chaunt Melody is not permitted to begin or end, even his intermediate phrases, upon any note he pleases. The last phrase of every Melody must, of necessity, end with the Final of the Mode in which it is written. The first phrase must begin with one or other of a certain set of notes called the Absolute Initials of the Mode. The intermediate phrases can only begin, or end, on one of another set of notes, called its Modulations. Of these Modulations, four the Final, Dominant, Mediant, and Participant—are of more importance than the rest, and are therefore called Regular. But, as the constant reiteration of these four notes would prove intolerably monotonous, in a Melody consisting of very numerous phrases, other notes, called Conceded Modulations, are added to them; and, upon any one of these, any phrase, except the first, or last, may either begin, or end.
A complete Table of the Regular and Conceded Modulations of all the Modes will be found in the Article, Modes, the Ecclesiastical
[ W. S. R. ]
MOLINARA, LA (Ger. Die schöne Müllerin). Opera by Paisiello, produced at Naples in 1788. In London at the King's Theatre Mar. 22, 1803. Its name is preserved by a duet, 'Nel cor più non mi sento,' [App. p.719 "known in England as 'Hope told a flattering tale'"] which has served as the theme of many Variations, amongst others of six by Beethoven. The autograph of the six was headed, 'Variazioni … perdute par la … retrovate par L.v. B.' Beethoven also wrote nine variations on 'Quant' e piü bello,' an air from the same opera. A third air from La Molinara, viz. La Rachelina, is given in the Musical Library, i. 98.
[ G. ]
MOLIQUE, Bernhard, celebrated violinist and composer, was born Oct. 7, 1803, at Nuremberg. His father, a member of the town band, at first taught him several instruments, but Molique soon made the violin his special study. Spohr, in his Autobiography (i. 228), relates that, while staying at Nuremberg, in 1815, he gave some lessons to the boy, who already possessed remarkable proficiency on the instrument. Molique afterwards went to Munich, and studied for two years under Rovelli. After having lived for some time at Vienna, as member of the orchestra of the Theater-an-der-Wien, he returned in 1820 to Munich, and succeeded his master Rovelli as leader of the band. From Munich he made several tours through Germany, and soon established his reputation as an eminent virtuoso and a solid musician. In 1826 he accepted the post of leader of the Royal band at Stuttgardt, and remained there till 1849. In that year he came to England, where he spent the remaining part of his professional life. The sterling qualities of Molique as a player, and his sound musicianship, soon procured him an honourable position in the musical world of London. His first appearance at the Philharmonic was on May 14, 1849 [App. p.719 "1840"], when he played