ITALIANA IN ALGIERI, L'. An Italian comic opera in 2 acts; words by Anelli, music by Rossini. Produced at San Benedetto, Venice, in 1813; at Paris, Feb. I, 1817; and in London, Jan. 27, 1819; in English, Dec. 30, 1844.
[ G. ]
ITALIAN SIXTH, THE, is the augmented sixth accompanied by the major third, as
[ C. H. H. P. ]
IVANOFF, or IVANHOFF, Nicholas, born in 1809, an Italianized Russian, appeared in England in the season of 1834. A pupil of E. Bianchi, he had a very beautiful tenor voice, 'a chaste and simple style of singing, but little execution' (Lord Mount-Edgcumbe). On the other hand, Mr. Chorley wrote,—'Nothing could be more delicious as to tone—more neat as to execution. No such good Rodrigo in Otello has been heard since I have known the opera:' and Moscheles, in his Diary, says, 'he attracted the public by his great flexibility of voice, but he displeased my German ear by using his head-voice too frequently, particularly when singing Schubert's Serenade. His sickly, sentimental style became so wearisome that some wag circulated a joke about him declaring that his real name was "I've enough."' Sweet as were his voice and method of vocalisation, his acting and appearance on the stage were utterly null and insignificant; 'In England, he was never seen to attempt to act; subsequently, he essayed to do so in Italy, I have heard; but, by that time, the voice had begun to perish' (Chorley). He reappeared in London in 1835 and 37, but he never fulfilled the promise of his first season, and soon retired. With others of the Italian troupe he had taken part, but without effect, in the Festival at Westminster Abbey in 1834. Ivanhoff is still living in retirement at Bologna.
[ J. M. ]
IVES, Simon, was a vicar choral of St. Paul's cathedral. In 1633 he was engaged, together with Henry and William Lawes, to compose the music for Shirley's masque, 'The Triumph of Peace,' performed at Court by the gentlemen of the four Inns of Court on Candlemas day, 1633–4, for his share in which he received £100. On the suppression of choral service he became a singing master. His elegy on the death of William Lawes, 'Lament and mourn,' appeared in separate parts at the end of H. and W. Lawes's 'Choice Psalmes,' 1648. It is given in score in J. S. Smith's 'Musica Antiqua.' Many catches and rounds by Ives are printed in Hilton's 'Catch that Catch can,' 1652, and Playford's 'Musical Companion,' 1672; 'Si Deus nobiscum,' 3 in 1, is given in Hullah's 'Vocal Scores.' Songs by him are to be found in various collections. He died in the parish of Christ Church, Newgate Street, in 1662.
[ W. H. H. ]
JACK (Fr. Sautereau; Ital. Saltarello; Ger. Docke, Springer). In the action of the harpsichord tribe of instruments the jack represents the Plectrum. It is usually made of pear-tree, rests on the back end of the key-lever, and has a moveable tongue of holly working on a centre, and kept in its place by a bristle spring. A thorn or spike of crowquill projects at right angles from the tongue. On the key being depressed the jack is forced upwards, and the quill is brought to the string, which it twangs in passing. The string is damped by the piece of cloth above the tongue. When the key returns to its level, the jack follows it and descends; and the quill then passes the string without resistance or noise. In some instruments a piece of hard leather is used instead of the quill. In cutting the quill or leather great attention is paid to the gradation of elasticity which secures equality of tone. A row of jacks is maintained in perpendicular position by a rack; and in harpsichords or clavecins which have more than one register, the racks are moved to or away from the strings by means of stops adjusted by the hand; a second rack then enclosing the lower part of the jack to secure its position upon the key. We have in the jack a very different means of producing tone to the tangent of the clavichord or the hammer of the pianoforte. The jack, in principle, is the plectrum of the psaltery, adjusted to a key, as the tangent represents the bridge of the monochord and the pianoforte hammer the hammer of the dulcimer. We do not exactly know when jack or tangent were introduced, but have no reason to think that the invention of either was earlier in date than the 14th century. By the middle of the 16th century the use of the clavecin instruments with jacks had become general in England, the Netherlands and France; and in Italy from whence they would seem to have travelled. They were used also in Germany, but the clavichord with its tangents asserted at least equal rights, and endured there until Beethoven. The first years of the 18th century had witnessed in Florence the invention of the hammer-clavier, the pianoforte; before the century was quite out the jack had everywhere ceded to the