dence. The Unprepared Dissonances introduced by Monteverde sapped the very foundations of the Polyphonic Schools, and involved the Motet, the Mass and the Madrigal in a common ruin. Men like Claudio Casciolini and Gregorio Allegri, did their best to save the grand old manner; but, after the middle of the Century, no Composer did it full justice.
The Seventh Epoch inaugurated a new style. During the latter half of the 17th century, Instrumental Music made a rapid advance; and Motets with Instrumental Accompaniments, were substituted for those sung by Voices alone. In these, the old Ecclesiastical Modes were naturally abandoned, in favour of the modern Tonality; and, as time progressed, Alessandro Scarlatti, Leo, Durante, Pergolesi, and other men of nearly equal reputation, produced really great works in the new manner, and thus prepared the way for still greater ones.
The chief glories of the Eighth Epoch were confined to Germany, where Reinhard Keiser, the Bach Family—with Johann Christoph, and Johann Sebastian, at its head—Graun, and Hasse, clothed the Motet in new and beautiful forms which were turned to excellent account by Homilius, and Rolle, Wolf, Hiller, Fasch, and Schicht. The Motets of Sebastian Bach are too well known to need a word of description—known well enough to be universally recognised as artistic creations of the highest order, quite unapproachable in their own peculiar style. With Handel's Motets few Musicians are equally familiar; for it is only within the last few years that the German Handel Society has rescued them from oblivion. Nevertheless, they are extraordinarily beautiful; filled with the youthful freshness of the Composer's early manner. Besides a 'Salve Regina,' the MS. of which is preserved in the Royal Library at Buckingham Palace, we possess a 'Laudate pueri,' in D, used as an Introduction to the Utrecht Jubilate; another in F, a 'Dixit Dominus,' a 'Nisi Dominus,' and, best of all, a lovely 'Silete venti,' for Soprano Solo, with Accompaniments for a Stringed Band, two Oboes, and two Bassoons, the last movement of which, 'Dulcis amor, Jesu care,' was introduced in Israel in Ægypt, on its second revival, in 1756, adapted to the words, 'Hope, a pure and lasting treasure.' It is to be hoped, that, now these treasures are really given to the world, they will not long be suffered to remain a dead letter.
Of the Ninth, or Modern Epoch, we have but little to say. The so-called Motets of the present Century have no real claim to any other title than that of Sacred Cantatas. They were, it is true, originally intended to be sung at High Mass: but, the 'Insanæ et vanæ curæ' of Haydn, the 'Splendente te Deus' of Mozart, and the 'O salutaris' of Cherubini, exquisitely beautiful as they are, when regarded simply as Music, have so little in common with the Motet in its typical form, that one can scarcely understand how the name ever came to be bestowed upon them. The Motets of Mendelssohn, again, have but little affinity with these—indeed, they can scarcely be said to have any; for, in spite of the dates at which they were produced, they may more fairly be classed with the great works of the Eighth Epoch, to which their style very closely assimilates them. We need scarcely refer to his three Motets for Treble Voices, written for the Convent of Trinità de' Monti, at Rome, as gems of modern Art.
All that we have said in a former article, on the traditional manner of singing the Polyphonic Mass, applies, with equal force, to the Motet. It will need an equal amount of expression, and an equal variety of colouring; and, as its position in the Service is anterior to the Elevation of the Host, a vigorous forte will not be out of place, when the sense of the words demands it. It would scarcely be possible to find more profitable studies for the practice of Polyphonic singing than the best Motets of the best period.
[ W. S. R. ]
MOTETT SOCIETY, THE, was established in 1847, its chief promoter being the late William Dyce, R.A. The object was to print 'A Collection of Ancient Church Music,' adapted to English words, with a compressed score, for the purpose of accompaniment. The subscription was a guinea a year. The musical portion was under the charge of the late Dr. Rimbault, who acknowledges in his preface that 'the greater part of the Motetts of Palestrina were adapted by Mr. William Dyce.'
The works were published in large folio, and in parts, forming three divisions:—No. 1, Anthems for Festivals; No. 2, Services; No. 3, Miscellaneous Anthems: in all 192 pages of music, and a few more of introductory matter.
Redford, Rejoice in the Lord, 4 voices.
Lupi, Now it is high time, 6 v.
Vittoria, Behold I bring you, 6 v.
Palestrina, If thou shall confess, 4 v.
Do. Almighty and Everlasting [App. p.720 "Ever-living"], 4 v.
Do. O Jerusalem, 4 v.
Do. These things have I, 4 v.
Do. These are they, 4 v.
Do. This shall be, 5 v.
Do. Break forth, 6 v.
F. della Porta, I have appeared. 4 v.
Lasso, Behold I will send, 4 v.
Vittoria, Come unto me. 4 v.
Lasso, And the Angel, 4 v.
Do. If ye keep my, 4 v.
Masera, Blessed is the man, 4 v.
Lasso, For he was a good, 4 v.
Do. The voice of him, 4 v.
Do. He saith unto them, 4 v.
Do. Are ye able to drink, 4 v.
Croce, And they went forth, 4 v.
Do. Charge them that are, 4 v.
Byrd, Bless the Lord ye, 5 v.
Lasso, But watch thou, 4 v.
Croce, Now unto Him, 4 v.
G. M. Nannino, [App. p.720 "Nanini"] All thy works, 5 v.
Lasso, Miserere, 5 v.
Palestrina, Behold the Lamb of God, 5 v.
Do. How beautiful, 4 v.
Tallls, If ye love me, 4 v.
Palestrina. Holy, Holy, 6 v.
Vittoria, Communion Service, 4 v.
Colonna, Magnif. and N. Dim. 8 v.
Gabrielli, Do. Do., 8 v.
Barcroft, Te Deum and Ben., 4 v.
Stonard, Magnif. and N. Dim. 5 v.
Palestrina, Do. Do. 4 v.
Blow, Sanctus and Gloria, 4 v.
Barcroft, Almighty God, 4 v.
O. Gibbons, Why art thou so heavy, 4 v.
Lasso, O praise the Lord, 5 v.
Do. Not unto us, 5 v.
P. Certon, I will alway give, 3 v.
Byrd, Prevent us, O Lord, 4 v.
Tallis, Hear the voice, 4 v.
Palestrina, O God, Thou art, 4 v.
Tallis, All people that on earth, 4 v.
Farrant, Unto Thee, Lord, 4 v.
Palestrina, I will magnify Thee, 5 v.
F. della Porta, Be merciful, 4 v.
Do. Righteous art Thou, 4 v.
Palestrina, O Lord my God, 4 v.
O. Gibbons, O Lord, increase, 4 v.
Vittoria, I will give thanks, 4 v.
Do. It is a good thing, 4 v.
Do. Teach me, O Lord, 4 v.
Do. How long wilt Thou. 4 v.
Do. My God, my God, 4 v.
Do. Unto Thee, O God, 4 v.
Do. Behold, now praise. 4 v.
Palestrina, Lord God of our salvation, 5 v.
Tallis, Great and marvellous, 5 v.
[App. p.720 "Lasso, Hear my prayer, 4 voices.
Byrd, Save me O God, 4 v.
Tye, From the depth, 4 v.
Lasso, I will love thee, 4 v.
Vittoria, Save me, O God, 4 v.
Mel, O praise the Lord, 4 v.
Tallis, Blessed are those, 5 v.
Shepherd, Haste thee, O God, 4 v.
Croce, Behold now, praise, 4 v.
Croce. O praise the Lord, 4 v.
Do. O give thanks 4 v.
Do. Teach me Thy way, 4 v.
Do. Give ear, Lord. 4 v.
Do, Behold, I bring you, 4 v.
Lasso, Save me, O God. 4 v.
Vittoria, O God. wherefore, 4 v.
Hooper, Teach me Thy way, 4 v."]
[ W. C. ]
MOTETUS. A name given, in the infancy of Polyphonic Music, to a middle part, written for the Voice which was afterwards called Medius,