JAELL, Alfred, pianoforte player, born March 5, 1832, at Trieste. Began his career at 11 years old as a prodigy, and seems to have acquired his great skill by constant performance in public. In 1844 he was brought to Moscheles at Vienna, who calls him a Wunderknabe. In 1845 and 6 he resided in Brussels, next in Paris, and then, after the Revolution of 1848, went to America for some years. In 1854 he returned to Europe. In 1862 he played at the Musical Union, and on June 25, 1866, at the Philharmonic Society; and since that date has divided his time between the Continent and England.
In 1866 Mr. Jaell married Miss Trautmann, a pianist of ability. His published works consist of transcriptions, potpourris, and other salon pieces. He has always shown himself anxious to bring forward new compositions; and played the concertos of Brahms and of Raff at the Philharmonic, at a time when they were unknown to that audience. [App. p.685 "He died Feb. 28, 1882."]
JAHN, Otto, the biographer of Mozart, a distinguished philologist, archæologist, and writer on art and music, born June 16, 1813, at Kiel; studied at Kiel, Leipzig, and Berlin, took his degree in 1831, visited Copenhagen, Paris, Switzerland and Italy, in 39 settled in Kiel, in 42 became professor of archæology and philology at Greifswalde, and in 47 director of the archæological Museum at Leipzig, was dismissed for political reasons during the troubles of 1848–49, and in 55 settled at Bonn as professor of classical philology and archæology, and director of the university art-museum. Here he remained till 1869, when he retired during his last illness to Göttingen, and died on Sept. 9. Jahn wrote important books on all the subjects of which he was master, but his musical works alone concern us. Foremost among these is his 'W. A. Mozart' (Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel, 4 vols, 1856–59, 2nd ed. 2 vols, 1867, with portraits and facsimiles). His picture of the great composer is scarcely less interesting and valuable than his description of the state of music during the period immediately preceding Mozart, while the new facts produced, the new light thrown on old ones, and the thorough knowledge of the subject evinced throughout, all combine to place the work at the head of musical biographies.
Jahn intended to treat Haydn and Beethoven on the same scale, and had begun to collect materials, but these projects were stopped by his death. Jahn also published an essay on Mendelssohn's 'Paulus' (Kiel 1842); and an accurate comparative edition, with preface, of Beethoven's 'Leonore' (Fidelio) for P.F. (B. & H. Leipzig 1851). For the 'Grenzboten' he wrote two spirited reports of the Lower Rhine Musical Festivals of 1855–56; an article on the complete edition of Beethoven's works, full of sound criticism and biographical information; and two controversial articles on Berlioz and Wagner. These and other contributions of the same kind were published as 'Gesammelte Aufsätze über Musik' (Leipzig 1868). His four collections of original songs (3 and 4 from Groth's 'Quickborn,' Breitkopf & Hartel), also evince the possession of that remarkable combination of a highly cultivated sense of beauty with scientific attainments, which places him in the first rank among writers on music. Köchel's Catalogue of Mozart is with great appropriateness dedicated to Jahn. [App. p. 685 "His life of Mozart was published in an English translation by Miss Pauline Townshend, in three volumes, by Novello and Co. in 1882."]
[ C. F. P. ]
JAHRBÜCHER FUR MUSIKALISCHE WISSENSCHAFT —'Year-books of musical science.' A publication due to the remarkable energy and interest of Dr. Chrysander, by whom it is edited and published, through Breitkopf & Härtel. Two volumes have appeared. For pains and ability the papers leave nothing to be desired, but the severe polemic spirit which is occasionally manifested is much to be regretted.
I. 1863. 1. Sound, and 2. Temperament, both by Hauptmann (17–54). 3. Tinctor's 'Diffinitorium,' by H. Bellermann (55–114). 4. The Limburg Chronicle, and German Volksgesang in 14th cent. (115–146). 5. The Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Band and Opera, 16th-18th cent. (147–286). 6. Henry Carey and God save the King (287–407). 7. Handel's Organ-part to Saul (408–428). 8. Beethoven's connection with Birchall and Stumpf (429–452).
II. 1867. 9. 'Das Lochheimer Liederbuch, nebst der Ars Organisandi, von Conrad Paumann'—a description and complete analysis of a German MS. collection of songs of the 15th cent., and a MS. book of organ pieces of the same date, with facsimiles, woodcuts, and very numerous examples—in all 234 pages, by F. W. Arnold and H. Bellermann. 10. J. S. Bach and Friedemann Bach in Halle (235–248). 11. Mendelsohn's Organ-part to Israel in Egypt(249–267). 12. Reviews:-Reissmann's General History of Music (268–300); Westphal's Rhythm and History of Greek Music (300–310); Coussemaker's 'Scriptorum de Musica … novam seriem' and 'L'art harmonique' (310–314); Wackernagel on the German 'Kirchenlied' (314–323); Hommel's 'Geistliche Volkslieder' (323–324); Riegel's Liturgical Music (324–327); Lillencron's Historical Volkslieder (327–329); Thayer's Chronological List of Beethoven's Works (329–330); Bitter's Life of J. S. Bach (330–333); Rudhart's History of the Opera at Munich (333–335); Koch's Musical Lexicon, edited by Dommer (335); Krüger's System of Music (336). 13. List of the Choral Societies and Concert Institutions of Germany and Switzerland (337–374).
[App. p.685 "For continuations see Breitkopf & Härtel in Appendix,vol.iv. p.562."]
JAMES, John, an organist in the first half of the 18th century, noted for his skill in extemporaneous performance. After officiating for several years as a deputy he obtained the post of organist of St. Olave, Southwark, which he resigned in 1738 for that of St. George in the East, Middlesex. He died in 1745. His published compositions consist of a few songs and organ pieces only.
[ W.H.H. ]
JAMES, W. N., a flautist, pupil of Charles Nicholson, was author of a work entitled 'A Word or two on the Flute,' published in 1826, in which he treats of the various kinds of flutes, ancient and modern, their particular qualities, etc., and gives critical notices of the style of playing of the most eminent English and foreign performers on the instrument.
[ W.H.H. ]
JANIEWICZ, Felix, violinist,a Polish gentleman, born at Wilna 1762. He went to Vienna in 1784 or 5 to see Haydn and Mozart, and hear their works conducted by themselves.
- For the English reader this admirable book suffers from the frequent interpolation of long digressions on the rise and progress of various sections of music, which, though most valuable in themselves, interrupt the narrative and would be more conveniently placed in an Appendix. Its Index also leaves much to be desired.
- The materials collected for Haydn went to Herr C. F. Pohl, and those for Beethoven to Mr. Thayer, and are being employed by those writers in their biographies of the two composers. Mr. Pohl was designated by Jahn as his successor in the biography of Haydn.
- As the letter J in Polish has the sound of I or Y, he altered the spelling of his name to Yaniewicz, in order that in England it might be pronounced correctly.