JERUSALEM 1. Grand opera in 4 acts; music by Verdi, the words by Royer and Waez; being a French adaptation of I Lombardi. Produced at the Academic Nov. 26, 1847. 2. A Sacred Oratorio in 3 parts; the words selected from the Bible by W. Sancroft Holmes, the music by H. H. Pierson. Produced at Norwich Festival Sept. 23, 1852.
JESSONDA. A grand German opera in 3 acts; the plot from 'La Veuve de Malabar.' Words by Edouard Gehe, music by Spohr. Produced at Cassel July 28, 1823; in London, at St. James's theatre (German company), June 18, 1840; in Italian, at Covent Garden, Aug. 6, 1853.
JEUNE HENRI, LE. Opéra-comique in 2 acts; libretto by Bouilly, music by Méhul. Produced at the Théatre Favart May 1, 1797. The overture has always been a favourite in France. The piece was damned, but the overture was redemanded on the fall of the curtain, having been already encored at the commencement.
JEUX D'ANCHES. The French name for the Reed Stops of an Organ.
[ W. S. R. ]
JEW'S-HARP, possibly a corruption of Jaw's-harp. In French it is called Guimbarde, and in German Maul-trommel, Mund-harmonica, or Brummeisen (i.e. buzzing-iron). In the Highlands, where it is much used, it is called Tromp. This simple instrument consists of an elastic steel tongue, rivetted at one end to a frame of brass or iron, similar in form to certain pocket corkscrews, of which the screw turns up on a hinge. The free end of the tongue is bent outwards, at a right angle, so as to allow the finger to strike it when the instrument is placed to the mouth, and firmly supported by the pressure of the frame against the teeth.
A column of air may vibrate by reciprocation with a body whose vibrations are isochronous with its own, or when the number of its vibrations are any multiple of those of the original sounding body. On this law depends the explanation of the production of sounds by the jew's-harp. The vibration of the tongue itself corresponds with a very low sound; but the cavity of the mouth is capable of various alterations; and when the number of vibrations of the contained volume of air is any multiple of the original vibrations of the tongue, a sound is produced corresponding to the modification of the oral cavity. Thus, if the primitive sound of the tongue is C, the series of reciprocated sounds would be C, E, G, B♭, C, D, E, F, G, etc., and by using two or more instruments in different keys, a complete scale may be obtained, and extremely original and beautiful effects produced.
The elucidation of this subject is due to the ingenious researches of Professor Wheatstone, which may be found in the 'Quarterly Journal of Science, Literature, and Art,' for the year 1828, 1st part, of which the above is a condensed account.
A soldier of Frederick the Great of Prussia, so charmed the king by his performance on two jew's-harps that he gave him his discharge, together with a present of money, and he subsequently amassed a fortune by playing at concerts.
In 1827 and 1828 Charles Eulenstein appeared in London [Eulenstein] and by using 16 Jew's-harps produced extraordinary effects.
[ V. de P. ]
JOACHIM, Joseph, the greatest of living violin-players, was born at Kittsee, a village near Pressburg, June 28, 1831. He began to play the violin at five years of age, and showing great ability he was soon placed under Szervacsinsky, then leader of the opera-band at Pesth. When only seven years old, he played a duet in public with his master with great success. In 1841 he became a pupil of Boehm in Vienna, and in 1843 went to Leipzig, then, under Mendelssohn's guidance, at the zenith of its musical reputation. On his arrival at Leipzig as a boy of twelve, he proved himself already an accomplished violinist, and very soon made his first public appearance in a Concert of Madame Viardot's, Aug. 10, 1843, when he played a Rondo of de Bériot's; Mendelssohn, who at once recognised and warmly welcomed the boy's exceptional talent, himself accompanying at the piano. On the 16th of the following November he appeared at the Gewandhaus Concert in Ernst's fantasia on Otello; and a year later (Nov. 25, 1844) took part in a performance at the Gewandhaus of Maurer's Concertante for four violins with Ernst, Bazzini and David, all very much his seniors. The wish of his parents, and his own earnest disposition, prevented his entering at once on the career of a virtuoso. For several years Joachim remained at Leipzig, continuing his musical studies under Mendelssohn's powerful influence, and studying with David most of those classical works for the violin—the Concertos of Mendelssohn, Beethoven and Spohr, Bach's Solos, etc.—which still constitute the staple of his repertoire. At the same time his general education was carefully attended to, and it may truly be said, that Joachim's character both as a musician and as a man was developed and directed for life during the years which he spent at Leipzig. He already evinced that thorough uprightness, that firmness of character and earnestness of purpose, and that intense dislike of all that is superficial or untrue in art, which have made him not only an artist of the first rank, but, in a sense, a great moral power in the musical life of our days.
Joachim remained at Leipzig till October 1850, for some time side by side with David as leader of the Gewandhaus orchestra, but also from time to time travelling and playing with ever-increasing success in Germany and England. On the strong recommendation of Mendelssohn he visited London for the first time as early as 1844, and at the 5th Philharmonic Concert (May 27) played Beethoven's Concerto (for the 4th time only at those concerts) with great success. His first actual public appearance in this country was at a benefit concert of Mr. Bunn's at Drury Lane on March 28. After this he
- See Spohr's Selbstbiographie, ii. 149.