Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/491

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to all civilised countries; whereas, the empirical methods which have been proposed as substitutes for it are, like the Tablature for the Lute, fitted, at their best, only to answer some special purpose, often of very slight importance. The 'Tonic Sol-fa' system, for instance,—even setting aside the grave faults which it shares with the older Alphabetical Method long since condemned—could never be used for any other purpose than that of very commonplace Part Singing, while the time spent in acquiring it could scarcely fail, if devoted to the study of ordinary Notation, to lead to far higher results. (See Tonic Sol-Fa; Key, II, vol. ii. p. 55 a; Bourgeois, Louis, Appendix.] We may, therefore, safely predict, for the present Written Language of Music, a future co-ordinate with that of the Scientific Principles of which it has so long been the recognised exponent.

[ W. S. R. ]

NOTE, NOTES (Lat. nota). The marks or signs by which music is put on paper. [See Notation.] Hence the word is used for the sounds represented by the notes. [See Scale.] Also for the keys of a pianoforte; and for a tune or song, as the 'note' of a bird.

[ G. ]

NOTTEBOHM, Martin Gustav, composer, teacher, and writer on music, born Nov. 12, 1817, at Lüdenscheid near Arnsberg in Westphalia, son of a manufacturer. In 1838 and 39, when in Berlin as a volunteer in the Garde-Schützenbataillon, he took lessons on the piano and composition from L. Berger and Dehn. In 1840 he removed to Leipzig, where he became intimate with Mendelssohn and Schumann, particularly the latter. A testimonal from Mendelssohn, stating his qualifications as a musician, procured his discharge from the army, and in Sept. 1846 he settled finally in Vienna. In 1847 he went through a course of counterpoint with Sechter, and has since been esteemed as an able and conscientious teacher of the pianoforte and composition. But it is as a solid and scientific writer on music that his name will live; indeed his critical researches on Beethoven's works constitute him an authority of the first rank. His cooperation in the revised editions of the works of Bach, Handel, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Mozart, is of the highest value as a guarantee for the thoroughness with which undertakings so important should be conducted. If not the first to explore Beethoven's sketch-books, he has certainly investigated them more thoroughly and to more purpose than any one else, and his works on this subject deserve the gratitude of every student of the great composer. [See vol. i. p.174.] It is to be regretted that so far no public institutution has been inclined to offer a man of his great attainments a position commensurate with his services.

Up to the present date (April 1880) Nottebohm has published:—'Musikwissenschaftliche Beitrage' in the 'Monatschrift für Theater und Musik'(1855 and 57, Vienna, Klemm); 'Ein Skizzenbuch von Beethoven,' description with extracts (1865, Breitkopf & Härtel); 'Thematisches Verzeichniss der im Druck erschienenen Werke von Beethoven,' 2nd ed. enlarged, and with chronological and critical observations (1868, B. & H.); 'Beethoveniana' (1872, Rieter-Biedermann); 'Beethoven's Studien,' vol. i. containing the instruction received by Beethoven from Haydn, Albrechtsberger, and Salieri; from the original MSS. (1873, ibid.); 'Thematisches Verzeichniss der im Druck erschieuenen Werke von Franz Schubert' (1874, Vienna, Schreiber); 'Neue Beethoveniana,' papers appearing from time to time in the 'Musikalisches Wochenblatt'; 1875 to 79—this last, and the 'Beethoveniana,' are founded on the examination of Beethoven's sketch-books to which allusion has been made; 'Mozartiana' (1880, B. & H.) His compositions include—op. 1, Clavier-quartet; op. 4, Clavier-trios (both Peters); Solos for P.F. op. 2 and 3 (Peters); op. 6, 10, 11, 13–15 (Spina); op. 16 (Peters); op. 17 'Variationen über ein Thema von J. S. Bach' P.F. 4 hands (B. & H.). [App. p.732 "Add to his publications, 'Ein Skizzenbuch von Beethoven aus dem Jahr 1803' (B.&H. 1880). This contains the sketches for the Eroica. His death took place at Gratz, on Oct. 30, 1882. Since then the papers which appeared in the 'Mus. Wochenblatt' as 'Neue Beethoveniana,' with others of the same nature by him, have been collected by E. Mandyczewski, and published in 1887 by Rieter-Biedermann of Leipzig in a volume of 590 pages; as 'Zweite Beethoveniana.' An index to both the Beethoveniana volumes was published in Oct. 1888."]

[ C. F. P. ]

NOURRIT, Louis, tenor-singer, born Aug. 4, 1780, at Montpellier, and educated in the Maîtrise there; through the influence of Méhul entered the Conservatoire at Paris, became the favourite pupil of Garat, and won prizes. He made his first appearance at the Opéra as Renaud in Gluck's 'Armide.' A good singer, but unambitious and cold, he contented himself with taking Lainé's parts in the old operas, and seldom created new rôles. He retired in 1826, and lived at his country house at Brunoy till his death, which took place on Sept. 23, 1831. During the whole of his operatic career he carried on the business of a diamond merchant, and wished to make a tradesman of his eldest son.

Adolphe, born in Paris, March 3, 1802. This gifted youth received a good classical education at the Collège Ste. Barbe, but was then put into an office, the drudgery of which he beguiled by studying music in secret. On the representation of Garcia, however, he was allowed to follow his wishes. His first appearance at the Opéra took place Sept. 10, 1821, as Pylade in Gluck's 'Iphigénie en Tauride,' when he was favourably received, partly because, in voice, manner, and appearance, he was strikingly like his father. This resemblance suggested to Méhul an opéra-féerie, 'Les deux Salem' (July 12, 1824), which however failed. Adolphe was intelligent and well-educated, and determined to succeed. Flexibility of voice he acquired by singing in Rossini's operas, and he studied hard to excel as an actor both in comedy and tragedy. On his father's retirement he succeeded him as leading tenor, and for more than ten years created the first tenor rôle in all the operas produced at the Académie. The following is a list of the parts written for him:—1826, Néoclès in 'Le Siége de Corinthe.' 1827, Aménophis in Moïse'; and Douglas in 'Macbeth.' 1828, Masaniello in 'La Muette de Portici'; and 'Le Comte Ory.' 1829, Arnold in 'Guillaume Tell.' 1830, Léonard da Vinci in Ginestet's 'François I à Chambord'; and Un Inconnu in 'Le Dieu et la Bayadère.' 1831, Adhémar in 'Euryanthe'; Guillaume in 'Le