good English, the friendly terms on which he stood with literary men of this country, and his familiarity with some, at least, of our literature.
'My search,' he writes, 'after a translation of Mr. Gray's poems has been as yet fruitless; however, I still entertain hopes of succeeding at Venice, where learning is perhaps more cultivated than in other parts of Italy. Your Divine Dramas I have not been able to discover in Toscany: at Venice, probably, I may be more fortunate. But should I look in vain, still permit me to trouble you with my letters, and flatter myself with the hopes of hearing sometimes that you are well, and that you have not forgotten me. My native country has produced its usual effect, and restored me to voice and sentiment, both of which were cruelly damped in England. Could I but maintain these acquisitions upon my return, I should be more worthy the attention of the Publick, and of the great Ideas you are pleased to intertain of the profession.'
The account that Pacchierotti gives here, with so much modesty, of the effect of our climate upon him, is confirmed by Dr. Burney, who relates that 'though he was never obliged by indisposition to be absent from the stage, when his duty called him thither, above once or twice during four years' residence among us, yet his voice was sometimes affected by slight colds.'
After a second visit to London Pacchierotti [App. p.737 "on his second visit to London he was engaged by Sheridan for the season (1782–3) at a salary of £1150, with a benefit"] again returned to Italy. He sang at the Tuileries in Paris on his way back again to England from Venice, where Bertoni had written fresh operas for him. Galuppi had died there in 1785 [App. p.737 "1784"], and at his funeral Pacchierotti took part in a Requiem. 'I sang very devoutly indeed,' he wrote to Burney, 'to obtain a quiet to his soul.' He used on another occasion, a familiar but picturesque expression, when discussing Pergolesi's setting of 'Se Cerca se dice," saying that 'he had hit the right nail on the head.' Pacchierotti arrived here, on his third visit, in 1790, and sang at the Pantheon, and at the Festival in Westminster Abbey in 1791. At the opening of the Fenice at Venice in 1792, he took his leave of the stage, after which he settled in Padua. In 1796, however, he was compelled to appear once more to sing before General Buonaparte, who was passing through the city, though the great artist had then been living four years in retirement. He sang, but most unwillingly.
At Padua he enjoyed the society and the esteem of all the literati of the city, among whom he spent the rest of his life in a peaceful and happy manner, only interrupted by one unfortunate incident. Having imprudently lamented 'le splendide miserie della vittoria,' in a letter to Catalani, which he had entrusted to Dragonetti, who was on the point of escaping from Italy, both fugitive and letter were intercepted; and the unlucky Pacchierotti was thrown into prison, where he was detained for a month. Not long before his death he was visited by Rossini, to whom he deplored the depraved modern taste in singing, and the growth of a noisy and rococo style, for which, doubtless, the old singer thought the Pesarese in a great degree to blame: 'Give me another Pacchierotti,' the latter replied, 'and I shall know how to write for him!'
During his remaining years, Pacchierotti did not cease his daily practice and enjoyment of singing, in private; but mainly devoted himself to the Psalms of Marcello, 'from which,' he said, 'he had learnt the little that he knew.' From the midst of this quiet life he departed Oct. 28, 1821. Only a few moments before his death he had repeated, as usual with him, some of Metastasio's sacred verses, in the most pathetic tones; and he died praying 'to be admitted to one of the humblest choirs of heaven.'
[ J. M. ]
PACHELBEL, Johann, eminent organist and composer, born at Nuremberg, Sept. 1, 1653, first learned the harpsichord and other instruments from H. Schwemmer, studied at Altdorf, Ratisbon, and then went to Vienna, where he became deputy-organist at the Cathedral. He was then successively organist at the court of Eisenach in 1675, at the Predigerkirche in Erfurt in 1680, and at Stuttgart in 1690. In 1692 the approach of the French army drove him to Gotha, and in 1695 he became organist of Saint Sebald in his native city, where he remained till his death, March 3, 1706. Mattheson states that he had the offer of an organist's post at Oxford in 1692, and was invited to return to Stuttgart on the cessation of hostilities, but declined to leave Nuremberg on account of his family. Of his compositions a few only are in print, viz. 'Musicalische Sterbens-Gedanken, 4 variirte Choräle' (Erfurt, 1683), composed during a visitation of the plague; 'VIII Choräle zum Praeambuliren' (Nuremberg, 1693); 'Hexachordum Apollinis, VI variirte Arien' (Nuremberg, 1699). In the Grand-ducal library at Weimar is the autograph of a 'Tabulatur-Buch' of hymns by Luther and others, with Choral-fugues, etc., by Johann Pachelbel, organist at St. Sebald, Nuremberg, 1704. Specimens of his vocal works are given by Von Winterfeld (Evang. Kirchengesang, ii. p. 201, etc.), and of his organ compositions by Körner (Orgelvirtuos) and Commer (Musica Sacra, vol. i.). A fugue in C will be found in the Auswahl vorz. Musikwerke No. 24.
[ C. F. P. ]
PACINI (or PACCINI), Andrea, an Italian contralto, born about 1700. In 1724 he appeared in the title-part of 'Tamerlano,' on Oct. 31, in London, and remained there during the whole of the season of 1724–5, taking part in 'Artaserse,' 'Rodelinda,' 'Dario,' 'Elpidia,' and the revival of 'Giulio Cesare'; singing, in the latter, the rôle previously sustained by Berenstadt, and afterwards by Mengozzi. In 1725, again, he was singing with success at Venice.
[ J. M. ]
PACINI, Giovanni, was born in Catania, Feb. 19 [App. p.738 "Feb. 17"], 1796. Being the son of a celebrated tenor, he was trained to the musical profession from his childhood. He studied under Marchesi in Bologna, and afterwards, from 1808 to 1812, was a pupil of Furlanetto in Venice.
In 1813, when only sixteen years old, he wrote his first opera, 'Annetta e Lucinda,' for the theatre S. Redegonda, in Milan; and from that year until 1834 he produced at the principal theatres of Italy 42 operas with various success.
- The statement that he profited by hearing Kerf's playing is erroneous, as Kerl held the office of Imperial organist from 1680 to 1692.
- Grundlage, p. 244.