Of such operas, those which met the warmest approval and deserve to be mentioned, are 'La Sacerdotessa d' Irminsul,' given in 1817 at Trieste; 'Cesare in Egitto' (Rome, 1822); 'L' ultimo giorno di Pompei' and 'Niobe' (S. Carlo, Naples, 1825 [App. p.738 "Niobe was produced in 1826"]); and 'Gli Arabi nelle Gallie' (Scala, Milan, 1827). In 1834, on the failure of his 'Carlo di Borgogna' at the Fenice in Venice, he left off composing and went to live at Viareggio, where he opened a School of Music. He had already been appointed Kapellmeister to the Empress Marie Louise, widow of Napoleon I., and had married in 1825 Adelaide Castelli, of Naples. His Musical Institute, for which he also built a theatre seating 800 spectators, met with great success, and pupils flocked there from all parts of Italy. For these he then wrote a History of Music, a Treatise on Counterpoint, and another on Harmony. Among the many artists whom he successfully trained in his school we may mention M. Sellerié, who became Director of the Conservatoire of Montpellier; Corelli (whose real name was Quarantotti), who afterwards lived in London; Papini, Bartolini, Marchetti, etc. He afterwards transferred this school to the town of Lucca.
It is interesting to find him at this advanced period of his life studying the masterpieces of the great German composers. Of the works of Beethoven, Haydn, and Mozart, he wrote at the time in the following strain:—
This study is quite a revelation of harmonic science, and it brightens the mind of the student in a marvellous way; since these classic compositions are a continuous progression of developments of most beautiful and simple melodies; to which Horace's words may well be applied:
'Demique sit, quod vis, simplex duntaxat, et unum.'
In the works of Beethoven are to be found gigantic and sublime formulæ; those of Haydn contain a melodic sweetness mixed with artifices, which are always agreeable; whilst Mozart shows his unequalled genius in everything: I can only compare them to Michael Angelo, Guido, and Raphael.
In 1840 he produced in Naples his best opera, 'Saffo,' which met with a great and well-deserved success, notwithstanding it had been written in the short period of four weeks. In 1843 his 'Medea' was enthusiastically received in Palermo, and the Sicilians there and then went so far as to erect a statue to him by the side of that of Bellini in the Royal Villa. 'La Regina di Cipro,' given in 1846 at Turin; and 'Niccoló de' Lapi,' a posthumous opera given in Florence in 1873, are also amongst his best.
Pacini was thrice married, and by each of his wives had three children, five of whom (four daughters and an only son, Luigi) survived him. He was named Musical Director of the musical school of Florence, and was a knight of half a dozen continental orders. In 1854 he went to Paris to superintend the representations of his 'Arabi nelle Gallie,' under the new title of 'L' ultimo de' Clodovei,' and there wrote a cantata for Napoleon III., who had applauded that same opera 27 years previously in Rome. He died in Pescia, Dec. 6, 1867.
Pacini wrote altogether 80 operas, of which seven are still unpublished, and more than 70 other compositions, such as masses, oratorios, and cantatas, which do not call for particular mention, if we except a beautiful Quartet in C and the Cantata for Dante's Centenary.
Pacini, though a successful imitator of Rossini, was still an imitator; and for that reason he can rank only among the minor masters of Italy. He tried in 'Saffo' to free himself from the yoke, but it was too late, nor was he altogether successful. He was called il maestro delle cabalette by his contemporaries; and the immense number of cabalettas which he wrote, their beauty and endless variety, show plainly how well he deserved that appellation. He made even his recitatives melodic, and was accustomed to use his accompaniments for strengthening the voices, by merely making them sustain the upper part. His instrumentation is consequently very weak and sometimes inaccurate. All his operas were written hastily; and, as he himself avows in his letters, without much study or reflection. One of Pacini's great merits was that he devoted himself to his vocal parts; he always suited them to the capabilities of his executants, and thus insured, at least, the temporary success of his works.
[ L. R. ]
PADUA. The first musical academy at Padua was that of the 'Costanti,' founded in 1566 by the nobles of the city. It embraced, besides music, natural philosophy, ethics, oratory, poetry, and languages. The first president was Francesco Portenari. But that the science of music must have been studied far earlier in the ancient Paduan university appears from the writings of Marchetto di Padova, the next writer upon music after Guido d'Arezzo, which date between the years 1274 and 1309. Prosdocimo di Beldomando, the musical theorist, was also a native of Padua. He was Professor of Astrology there in 1422, with a stipend of 40 silver ducats annually. His works on music are still preserved in the library at Padua. But he is outside our limits, and we therefore refer the reader to Burney, Hist. ii. 350. Padua gave its name to the ancient dance Paduan, or Pavan, which is discussed under its own heading.
[ C. M. P. ]
PAER, Ferdinando, Italian opera composer and maestro di capella, born June 1, 1771, at Parma, where he studied under a violinist named Ghizetti. At 20 he became maestro di capella at Venice, and there composed industriously, though leading a gay and dissolute life. His operas were not all equally successful, but they made his name known beyond Italy, and in 1797 he received an invitation to Vienna, whither he went with his wife, a singer named Riccardi, who was engaged at the Italian Opera. The most celebrated of the operas which he composed for the national theatre, and indeed his best work, was 'Camilla, ossia il Sotteraneo' (1799 [App. p.738 "1801"]). In 1801 he went to Dresden as capellmeister, remaining, except for occasional tours and visits to Vienna and Italy, till 1806. Here he composed 'Sargino, ossia l' Allievo dell' amore' (1803), and 'Eleonora, ossia l' Amore conjugale' (1804), the same subject which Beethoven has immortalised in 'Fidelio.' In 1806 Paer accompanied Napoleon to Warsaw and Posen, and in 1807 was formally installed as