and composition with Berton and Gossec, ended by carrying off the 'Grand prix de Rome' (1813). He made good use of his time in Italy, took lessons in counterpoint and fugue from the Abbé Mattei, at Bologna, and studied especially the art of singing, and the style of the old Italian masters. After travelling in Austria and Germany, and even reaching St. Petersburg, he returned to Paris, and became a teacher. Shortly afterwards he was appointed 'accompagnateur' to the Opéra Comique, a position which enabled him to produce two small one-act pieces long since forgotten. He does not appear to have possessed the necessary qualities for success on the stage, but he had a real gift of tune, and this secured great popularity for a number of French romances composed between 1825 and 40, melodious, well written for the voice, easily remembered, and often pleasing or even more; but marred by too much pretension. The merits of such sentimental trifles as these would scarcely have earned Panseron a European fame, if it had not been for his didactic works. His wide experience during his professorships at the Conservatoire—solfeggio, 1826; vocalisation, Sept. 1831; and singing, Jan. 1836—taught him the requirements of pupils, and how those requirements can best be met. His works are thus of value from an educational point of view, and we give a complete list, classified under the various heads.
- Progressive solfeggios for single voice—'A B, C musical'; Continuation of do.; Solfége for mezzo soprano; Do. in F, low tenor and baritone; Do. for contralto; Do. for artists; Do. with changing clefs; 36 Exercises on changing clefs; Do., do., difficult.
- Progressive solfeggi for several voices—Primary manual, for 2 and 3 voices; Solfége for 2 voices; Progressive do. for bass and baritone; Do. concertante for 2, 3, and 4 voices; Do. d'ensemble for 2, 3, and 4 voices; Solfége à due with changing clefs.
- Do. for instrumental performers—Do. for Pianists; Do. for Violin players.
- On the art of singing—Method for soprano and tenor, in 2 parts; Appendix to do. (25 easy exercises for young tenor or soprano); 12 Special studies with 12 Exercises for soprano or tenor; 12 Exercises and 25 do. for 2 sopranos; Method of singing for low tenor, baritone, or contralto; 25 Exercises and 25 Progressive do. for bass, baritone, or contralto; 12 Special studies, with 12 Exercises for bass, baritone, or contralto; Complete method for mezzo soprano; 25 Exercises for mezzo soprano, and 25 easy and progressive do.
- On the art of composition—A Practical Treatise on harmony and modulation; with 60 exercises on figured basses and 70 on unfigured do., and a course of lectures on writing a bass to a given melody. The art of modulating on the Violin.
Panseron also composed 2 masses for 3 treble voices, and a 'Mois de Marie' containing motets and cantiques for 1, 2, and 3 voices. This painstaking musician, who was kind and amiable in private life, and possessed as much ability as learning, died in Paris, July 29, 1859.
[ G. C. ]
PANTALEON or PANTALON. A very large Dulcimer invented and played upon in the early part of the last century by Pantaleon Hebenstreit, whose name was transferred to the instrument by Louis XIV. The name was also given in Germany to horizontal pianofortes with the hammers striking downwards.
[ A. J. H. ]
PANTHEON. A building in Oxford Street, erected in 1770–71 from the designs of James Wyatt, at a cost of £60,000, for masquerades, concerts, balls, etc., and as 'a Winter Ranelagh.' It occupied a large space of ground, and besides the principal entrance in Oxford Street there were entrances in Poland Street and Great Marlborough Street. The interior contained a large rotunda and fourteen other rooms most splendidly decorated; the niches in the rotunda being filled with white porphyry statues of the heathen deities, Britannia, George III, and Queen Charlotte. The building was opened for the first time Jan. 26, 1772. For some years it proved a formidable rival to the Italian Opera, as the proprietors always provided the best performers. In 1775 the famous songstress, Agujari, was engaged, who was succeeded, a few years later, by the equally-famed Giorgi, afterwards Banti. In 1783 a masquerade took place in celebration of the coming of age of the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. The second concert of the Commemoration of Handel was given here, May 27, 1784, the place being specially fitted up for the occasion. Later in the same year the balloon in which Lunardi had made his first successful ascent from the Artillery Ground was exhibited. The King's Theatre having been burnt down in 1788, the Pantheon was fitted up as a theatre and opened for the performance of Italian operas, Feb. 17, 1791. On Jan. 14, 1792, the theatre was destroyed by fire. In 1795 the interior of the building was re-constructed for its original purpose and opened in April with a masquerade, but it met with little success, and in 1812 was again converted into a theatre, and opened Feb. 17, with a strong company, principally composed of seceders from the King's Theatre, for the performance of Italian operas. The speculation however failed, and the theatre closed on March 19. In the following year (July 23, 1813) an attempt was made to open it as an English opera house, but informations being laid against the manager and performers, at the instance of the Lord Chamberlain, for performing in an unlicensed building, and heavy penalties inflicted (although not exacted), the speculation was abandoned. Subsequent efforts to obtain a license failed, and in Oct. 1814 the whole of the scenery, dresses, properties, and internal fittings were sold under a distress for rent, and the building remained dismantled and deserted for nearly 20 years. In 1834 the interior was re-constructed by Sydney Smirke, at a cost of between £30,000 and £40,000, and opened as a bazaar; part being devoted to the sale of paintings, and the back part, entered from Great Marlborough Street, fitted up as a conservatory for the sale of flowers and foreign birds. The bazaar in its turn gave way, and early in 1867 the premises were transferred to Messrs. Gilbey, the well-known wine-merchants, by whom they are still occupied. During all the vicissitudes of the building Wyatt's original front in Oxford Street has remained unaltered.
[ W. H. H. ]
PANTOMIME (Gr. 'An imitation of everything'). A kind of dramatic entertainment in which the performers express themselves by gestures to the accompaniment of music, and which may be called a prose ballet. It has been in use among Oriental nations from very ancient times. The Greeks introduced pan-