Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/665

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The troubadour style of both words and music hit the taste of the day, the song went through every phase of success, and was even parodied. When Louis Napoleon mounted the throne of France in 1853, his mother's little melody was recalled to mind, and although of a sentimental rather than martial turn, it became the national air, arranged, in default of fresh words, solely for military bands. In this arrangement the last phrase is repeated, closing for the first time on the third of the key.

The credit of having composed this little song has more than once been denied to Queen Hortense, and Drouet in his Memoirs claims to have had at least a half share in the composition. Others have advanced a similar claim in favour of Narcisse Carbonel (1773 to 1855), who organised Queen Hortense's concerts, and was her usual accompanyist. No doubt he looked over and corrected most of his royal pupil's improvisations; at least that is no unfair inference from Mlle. Cochelet's (Mme. Parquin) 'Memoires sur la Reine Hortense' (i. 45). But there is no decisive evidence either one way or the other.—Dussek's variations on the tune were at one time very popular.

[ G. C. ]

PART DU DIABLE, LA. An opéra-comique in 3 acts; words by Scribe, music by Auber. Produced at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, Jan. 16, 1843.

[ G. ]

PARTHENIA. The first music for the virginals published in England. The title is 'Parthenia or The Maydenhead of the first musicke that euer was printed for the Virginalls Composed By three famous Masters William Byrde, Dr. John Bull and Orlando Gibbons Gentilmen of his Maties most Illustrious Chappell. Ingrauen by William Hole.' The work consists of the following 21 pieces, all upon 6-line staves, and engraved upon copper plates, being the first musical work so produced.

Pavana; Sir W. Petre.
Preludium.Gallardo; Mrs. Mary Brownlo.
Pavana; The Earl of Salisbury.
Galiardo, 2 do.; Mrs. Mary Brownlo.

Pavano; Sir Thos. Wake.
Galiardo; Sir Thos. Wake.

Fantazia of four parts.
The Lord of Salisbury, his Pavin.
The Queen's command.

It first appeared in 1611. On the title is a three-quarter-length representation of a lady playing upon the virginals. Commendatory verses by Hugh Holland and George Chapman are prefixed. It was reprinted in 1613 with a dedication to the Elector Palatine and Princess Elizabeth. Other impressions appeared in 1635, 1650 and 1659, the latter with a letterpress title bearing the imprint of John Playford. All these impressions were from the same plates. The work was reprinted by the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1847, under the editorship of Dr. Rimbault, with facsimiles of the title-page and a page of the music.

[ W. H. H. ]

PARTIAL TONES (Fr. Sons partiels; Ger. Partialtöne, Aliquottöne). A musical sound is in general very complex, consisting of a series of simple sounds called its Partial tones. The lowest tone of the series is called the Prime (Fondamental, Grundton), while the rest are called the Upper partials (Harmoniques; Oberpartialtöne, Obertöne). The prime is usually the loudest, and with it we identify the pitch of the whole compound tone. For each vibration given by the prime the upper partials give respectively 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc. vibrations. The number of partial tones is theoretically infinite, but it will be enough here to represent the first 16 partials of C, thus:—

{ \clef bass \override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f \override Score.Stem #'stencil = ##f \relative c, { \cadenzaOn c1 c'4 g' \clef treble c e g bes c d e fis g a bes b c \bar "||" }
\addlyrics { \override Staff . LyricText #'font-shape = #'italic C c g c′ e′ g′ b′♭ c′′ d′′ e′′ f′′♯ g′′ a′′ b′′♭ b′′♮ c′′′ }
\addlyrics { "1" "2" "3" "4" "5" "6" "7" "8" "9" "10" "11" "12" "13" "14" "15" "16" } }

When the notes of this diagram are played on the ordinary Piano, tuned in equal temperament, the Octaves alone agree in pitch with the partial tones. The 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th partials are slightly sharper, and the 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 15th much flatter than the notes given above. But even in just intonation the 11th and 13th partials are much flatter than any F♯ and A recognised in music.

When a simple tone is heard, the kind of motion to and fro executed by the sounding body resembles that of the pendulum, and is hence called pendular vibration. [Vibration.] When a compound tone is heard, the form of vibration is more complex, but may be represented as the sum of a series of pendular vibrations of different frequencies. In order that the compound tone shall be musical it is necessary that the vibration should be periodic, and this happens only when the frequencies of the vibrations which sound the upper partials are multiples of that which sounds the prime tone. In the article on Node it has been already explained in what manner a string or the column of air in an organ pipe produces this compound vibration. The real motion, as Helmholtz remarks, is of course one and individual, and our theoretical treatment of it as compound is in a certain sense arbitrary. But we are justified in so treating it, since we find that the ear as well as all bodies which vibrate sympathetically, can only respond to a compound tone by analyzing it into its simple partials.

It may seem difficult to reconcile this with the fact that many ears do not perceive the composite nature of sound. Helmholtz has treated this question at length,[1] and his explanation may be thus indicated. The different partials really excite different sensations in the ear, but whether they are perceived or not, depends on the amount

  1. 'Sensations of Tone,' pp. 93–105.