discarded the use of these 'cross-fingered' notes. [See Flute.]
Keys are now fashioned in a far more artistic and convenient form, a distinction in shape being made between those which are open, and those normally closed; so that the player may be assisted in performance by his instinctive sense of touch. [See Contrafagotto.] [App. p.690 changes this refernce to Double Bassoon."] Besides the Bassoon, the Corno di Bassetto affords a good example of this contrivance, the scale being carried down through four semitones by interlocking keys, worked by the thumb of the right hand alone.
[ W.H.S. ]
KEY-BUGLE. An improvement of the original bugle, which had no keys, and therefore could only yield certain restricted notes [see p. 280 ] by the addition of keys. It is said to have been made by Logier. The Kent Bugle is either a further improvement, or only another name for the same thing.
[ G. ]
KIEL, Friedrich, born Oct. 7, 1821, at Puderbach on the Lahn; son of a schoolmaster, who taught him the pianoforte. At 14 he began the violin under Schulz, Concertmeister to Prince Carl von Wittgenstein-Berleberg, and soon entered the band of the reigning Prince, who sent him first to Kummer at Coburg, and in 1843 to Dehn at Berlin. While there he received a salary from King Frederic William IV. His first compositions were for the pianoforte, 'Canons und Fugen' op. 1 and 2; variations and fugue, op. 17; and several pieces for P.F. and cello, of which the 'Reisebilder' are specially interesting. In 62 his Requiem (op. 20), a very remarkable work, was performed by Stern's Choral Society—also by the University Musical Society of Cambridge, May 21, 1878. In 66 he composed a 'Missa Solemnis,' and in 74 an oratorio 'Christus.' He has been a member of the council of the Berlin Academic der Künste since 1869, and is professor of composition in the Hochschule für Musik, in which capacity he is much esteemed. Kiel is one of the most distinguished living masters of counterpoint and fugue, and as such forms one of the race of musicians of whom the late Moritz Hauptmann may be considered the chief. His compositions are of the sound classical school, tempered with a due regard for the best modern tendencies. [App. p.690 "Add date of death, Sept. 14, 1885."]
[ F. G. ]
KIESEWETTER, Raphael Georg, Edler von Wiesenbrunn (uncle to Ambros the historian of music), Imperial councillor, and learned author on musical subjects, born at Holleschau in Moravia, Aug. 29, 1773; settled in Vienna in 1794. In 1816 he began to form a collection of scores of the old masters, and made his house a rendezvous for the first musicians of Vienna. There also during Advent, Lent, and Holy Week, a first-rate amateur choir performed the principal works of the old Italian composers, and of Bach, Handel, etc. He died Jan. 1, 1850, at Baden (Beethoven's Baden) near Vienna, but was buried in the cemetery at Vienna, 'vor der Währinger Linie.' He was ennobled for his services as an official in the Kriegsrath, taking his title from his estate. Innumerable societies elected him a member in acknowledgement of his services as a musician. He left his musical MSS. and his correspondence with musical men of letters to Alois Fuchs, and to the court library his invaluable collection of scores, with the condition that they should be kept together as the 'Fond Kiesewetter.'
That he was a most prolific writer the following list of his printed works will show.
1. 'Die Verdienste der Niederländer am die Tonkunst' (received the gold prize-medal, Amsterdam 1828). 2. 'Geschichte der europaisch-abendländischen, das ist; unserer heutigen Musik' (Breitkopf & Härtel, 1834, 2nd ed. 1846). 3. 'Ueber die Musik der Neugriechen,' with remarks on ancient Egyptian and ancient Greek music; 3 treatises (ibid. 1828). 4. 'Guido von Arezzo,' life and works (Ibid. 1840). 5. 'Schicksale und Beschaffenheit des Weltlichen Gesanges,' from the early Middle Ages down to the discovery of the dramatic style and rise of opera (ibid. 1841). 6. 'Die Musik der Araber,' from original sources (Ibid. 1842). 7. Ueber das Leben, und die Werke Palestrina's,' a condensation of Baini's work left unpublished by Kandler; edited with preface and remarks (ibid, 1834). 8. 'Der neuen Aristoxenes zerstreute Aufsätze' (ibid. 1846). 9. 'Ueber die Octave des Pythagoras,' supplement to the preceding (Vienna 1848). 10. 'Catalog ueber die Sammlung der Partituren alter Musik,' etc. (Vienna 1847), with preface and appendix 'Gallerie der alten Contrapunctisten,' a selection from their works, chronologically arranged. Also about 50 scattered articles in different periodicais, reviews, etc.
[ C. F. P. ]
KIND, Johann Friedrich, author of the words of Der Freischütz; born at Leipsic March 4, 1768; brought up to the law, but frequented the Thomas School of his own accord. He began to practise literature as early as 1800, and after much success with novels and tales, settled in 1814 at Dresden, became a Hofrath, and definitely renounced the law for a literary life. Here Weber met him, at the house of von Nordstern. About Feb. 15, 1817, Kind read to him his 'Vandyck's Landleben,' which so pleased the composer that he at once consulted hun as to an opera -book. The choice of a source fell on Apel's 'Gespensterbuch' (Ghost Stories). Weber had several years before been attached to the story of the Freischütz, and so entirely did his enthusiasm communicate itself to Kind, that by the evening of Feb. 23, he had completed the first act of the opera. Freischütz was the only important joint composition of the two, but Julius's catalogue contains 11 other pieces the words of which were supplied by Kind. The chief of these is the 'Jubel Cantata,' another cantata called 'Natur und Liebe,' 5 songs, 2 part-songs, and a chorus. Some of these were taken from operas of Kind's—'Der Weinberg an der Elbe,' 'Der Abend am Waldbrunnen,' and 'Das Nachtlager in Granada.' The last of these was set to music by Conradin Kreutzer. Kind seems to have supplied Spanish materials for Preciosa, and Weber had two librettos by him—Alcindor, 1819, and Der Cid, 1821—under consideration, but Freischütz is the one which Weber adopted in full. Kind's 'Holzdieb' (Wood-thief) was composed by Marschner in 1824. He died at Dresden June 25, 1843, having for many years quite forsaken literature. He is described by Weber's son as
- The scores left to the court library.