estimation in which he is held in the Land of Music. A Leipzig journal published on the day after his death, after speaking of him as a 'great artist, whose strivings were ever after the noblest ends,' continues as follows: 'Holding no musical appointment, and consequently without influence; highly educated, but, after the fashion of true genius, somewhat of a recluse, and withal unpractical, he did not know how to make his glorious works valued. He showed himself seldom, though his appearance was poetic and imposing; and he was such a player on both organ and pianoforte as is rarely met with.'
[ H. P. ]
PIETRO IL GRANDE. 'A new grand historical opera'; words by Desmond Ryan and Maggioni, music by Jullien. Produced at Covent Garden Aug. 17, 1852.
PIFFERO is really the Italian form of the English word Fife, and the German Pfeife. In the 'Dizionario della Musica' it is described as a small flute with six finger-holes and no keys. But the term is also commonly used to denote a rude kind of oboe, or a bagpipe with an inflated sheepskin for reservoir, common in Italy, and occasionally to be seen about the streets of London, the players being termed Pifferari. [See Pastoral Symphony, vol. ii. p. 670 b.]
Spohr, in his Autobiography (Dec. 5, 1816), quotes a tune which he says was played all over Rome at that season by Neapolitan pipers, one playing the melody on a sort of 'coarse powerful oboe,' the other the accompaniment on a bagpipe sounding like three clarinets at once. We give a few bars as a specimen.
It is a very different tune from Handel's 'Pastoral Symphony.'
[ W. H. S. ]
PIGGOTT, Francis, Mus. Bac., was appointed Jan. 18, 1686, organist of Magdalen College, Oxford, which office he resigned in 1687. He was chosen, May 25, 1688, first organist of the Temple Church. On Dec. 11, 1695, he was sworn organist extraordinary of the Chapel Royal, and on March 24, 1697, on the death of Dr. Child, organist in ordinary. He graduated at Cambridge in 1698. He composed some anthems, now forgotten, and died May 15, 1704. He was succeeded as organist of the Temple by his son, Francis, afterwards organist of St. George's, Chapel, Windsor, who became possessed of a large fortune on the death of his relation, Dr. John Felling, rector of St. Anne's, Soho, and died in 1736.
[ W. H. H. ]
PILGRIME VON MEKKA, DIE. A comic opera, translated from Dancourt's 'Rencontre imprévue,' set to music by Gluck, produced at Schönbrunn 1766, and revived 1780. [App. p.749 "add that it had been previously played at Schönbrunn with French words in 1764, that it was produced in German in Vienna in 1776, and in Paris, as 'Les Foux de Medina,' 1790."] One air in it, 'Unser dummer Pöbel meint,' Mozart has rescued from oblivion by writing a set of variations upon it (Köchel, No. 455). He improvised them at Madame Lange's concert, March 32, 1783, in Gluck's presence.
PILKINGTON, Francis, Mus. Bac., Oxon. 1595, was a lutenist and member of the choir of Chester Cathedral. In 1605 he published 'The First Booke of Songs or Ayres of 4 parts: with Tableture for the Lute or Orpharion, with the Violl de Gamba.' In 1613 he issued 'The First Set of Madrigals and Pastorals of 3, 4 and 5 parts,' and in 1614 contributed two pieces to Leighton's 'Teares or Lamentacions.' In 1624 he published 'The Second Set of Madrigals and Pastorals of 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts; apt for Violls and Voyces'; on the title of which he describes himself as 'Chaunter of the Cathedrall … in Chester.' A part-song by him, 'Rest, sweet Nymphs,' is included by Mr. Hullah in his 'Vocal Scores.'
[ W. H. H. ]
PINAFORE, H.M.S. A comic opera in 2 acts; words by W. S. Gilbert, music by Arthur Sullivan. Produced at the Opera Comique, Strand, May 25, 1878. The success of this piece has been prodigious: in London it celebrated its 209th night at the Opera Comique on the 24th Oct. 1880; and in America no piece is ever remembered to have had such an extraordinary and long continued reception. It is said to have been on the stage at four theatres at once, in New York alone, for months together.
PINSUTI, Ciro (Il cavaliere), native of Sinalunga, Siena, where he was born May 9, 1829. He was grounded in music and the piano by his father; at ten he played in public; at eleven, being in Rome, he was made honorary member of the Accademica Filarmonica, and was taken to England by Mr. Henry Drummond, M.P., in whose house he resided until 1845, studying the pianoforte and composition under Cipriani Potter, and the violin under H. Blagrove. In 1845 he returned home, and entered the Conservatorio at Bologna, where he attracted the notice of Rossini, and became his private pupil. In 1847 he took his degree at Bologna, and remained there another year under Rossini's eye. In 1848 he went back to England and started as a teacher of singing, dividing his time between London and Newcastle, where he founded a Musical Society which still exists. Since that time Mr. Pinsuti's head-quarters have been in London, though he keeps up his connection with Italy by frequent visits. Thus he brought out his first opera, 'Il Mercante di Venezia,' at Bologna, Nov. 8, 1873, and a second, 'Mattia Corvino,' at the Scala at Milan, March 24, 1877. Both operas have been very successful in Italy, and the theatre at Sinalunga is now the 'Teatro Ciro Pinsuti.' In 1859 he composed the Te Deum for the annexation of Tuscany to the Italian