tuning. All pitchpipes are however inferior in accuracy to tuning-forks: the only advantage they possess over the latter being their louder, more strident, more coercive tone, and the readiness with which beats are produced. No accurate tuning is practicable except by the principle of beats and interferences.
[ W. H. S. ]
PITONI, Giuseppe Ottavio, eminent musician of the Roman school, born March 18, 1657, at Rieti; from the age of five attended the music-school of Pompeo Natale, and was successively chorister at San Giovanni de' Fiorentini, and the SS. Apostoli in Rome. Here he attracted the attention of Foggia, who gave him instruction in counterpoint during several years. In 1673 he became Maestro di Capella at Terra di Rotondo, and afterwards at Assisi, where he began to score Palestrina's works, a practice he afterwards enjoined on his pupils, as the best way of studying style. In 1676 he removed to Rieti, and in 1677 became Maestro di Capella of the Collegio di San Marco in Rome, where his pieces for two and three choirs were first performed. He was also engaged by various other churches, San Apollinare and S. Lorenzo in Damaso in 1686, the Lateran in 1708, and St. Peter's in 1719, but he retained his post at San Marco till his death, Feb. 1, 1743, and was buried there.
Pitoni's 'Dixit' in 16 parts is still one of the finest pieces of music sung at St. Peter's during Holy Week, and his masses 'Li Pastori a Maremme,' 'Li Pastori a montagna,' and 'Mosca,' founded openly on popular melodies, still sound fresh and new. His fertility was enormous; for St. Peter's alone he composed complete services for the entire year. He also wrote many pieces for six and nine choirs. He compiled a history of the Maestri di Capella of Rome from 1500 to 1700, the MS. of which is in the Vatican library, and was used by Baini for his life of Palestrina. Gaspari drew the attention of Fétis to a work of 108 pages, 'Guida Armonica di Giuseppe Ottavio Pitoni,' presumably printed in 1689. The MS. is lost. Among Pitoni's numerous pupils were Durante, Leo, and Feo. The library of the Corsini Palace in Rome contains a biography of him by his friend Geronimo Chiti of Siena. Proske's 'Musica Divina' contains a mass and a requiem, 6 motets, a psalm, a hymn, and a 'Christus factus est,' by Pitoni.
[ F. G. ]
PITTMAN, Josiah, the son of a musician, born Sept. 3, 1816. He began to study both theory and practice at an early age, and became a pupil of Goodman and of S. S. Wesley on the organ; and at a later date, of Moscheles on the piano. He held the post of organist at Sydenham (1831), Tooting (1833), and Spitalfields (1835) successively—the last of the three for 12 years. Feeling the need of fuller instruction in theory he visited Frankfort in 1836 and 7, and studied with Schnyder von Wartensee. In 1852 he was elected organist to Lincoln's Inn: the service was in a very unsatisfactory condition, but Mr. Pittman's zeal, perseverance and judgment improved it greatly, and he remained there for 12 years. It was in support of this reform that he wrote a little book entitled 'The People in Church,' which at the time excited much attention. He also composed many services and anthems for the Chapel. Since then Mr. Pittman has been connected with the Opera as accompanyist, first at Her Majesty's (1865–68) and since at Covent Garden. His early predilections were for the German organ music, and like Gauntlett, Jacob, and the Wesleys he worked hard by precept, example and publication to introduce Bach's fugues, and pedal organs, into England. When Mendelssohn came here he lost no opportunity of hearing him play and of profiting by his society. For several years Mr. Pittman delivered the annual course of lectures on music at the London Institution. [App. p.749 "date of death April 23, 1886."]
[ G. ]
PIXIS, a family of musicians. Friedrich Wilhelm, the elder, was a pupil of the Abbé Vogler in Mannheim in 1770, and still lived there in 1805. He published organ-music, and sonatas and trios for PF. His eldest son, also
Friedrich Wilhelm, born in Mannheim, 1786, studied the violin under Ritter, Luigi, and Franzel, early made a name, and travelled throughout Germany with his father and brother. At Hamburg he took lessons from Viotti. In 1804 he entered the Elector's Chapel at Mannheim, and afterwards went to Prague, where he became professor at the Conservatorium, and Capellmeister of the theatre, and died Oct. 20, 1842. His brother,
Johann Peter, born 1788, pianist and composer for the PF., lived with his father and brother till 1809, when he settled in Munich. In 1825 he went to Paris, and became a teacher of great note there. His adopted daughter, Franzilla Güringer (born 1816 at Lichtenthal, Baden), developing a good mezzo soprano voice and real talent, he trained her for a singer, and in 1833 started with her on a tour, which extended to Naples. Here Pacini wrote for her the part of Saffo in his well-known opera of that name. After her marriage to an Italian, Pixis settled finally in Baden-Baden, and gave lessons at his well-known villa there almost up to his death on Dec. 21, 1874 [App. p.749 "Dec. 20"]. He composed much for the PF.—concertos, sonatas, and drawing-room pieces, all now forgotten. The fact that he contributed the 3rd variation to the 'Hexameron,' in company with Liszt, Czerny, Thalberg, Herz and Chopin, shows the position which he held in Paris. His works amount in all to more than 150. Though not wholly devoid of originality he was apt to follow too closely in the footsteps of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven. In 1831 he composed an opera 'Bibiana' for Mme. Schroeder-Devrient, produced in Paris without success. 'Die Sprache des Herzens' was composed in 1836 for the Konigstadt Theatre in Berlin.
[ F. G. ]
PIZZICATO (Ital. for 'pinched'). On the violin, and other instruments of the violin-tribe, a note or a passage is said to be played pizzicato if the string is set in vibration not by the bow, but by being pinched or plucked with the finger. The pizzicato is used as much in orchestral and chamber music as in solo pieces. A well-known