in C, op. 4 (Breitkopf & Härtel); grand duos for 2 cellos, op. 5 and 6 (Vienna, Steiner); and divertissement for cello with double bass (Peters). Kraft also played the baritone in Prince Esterhazy's chamber music, and composed several trios for 2 baritones and cello. His son and pupil Nicolaus, born Dec. 14, 1778, at Esterhaz, early became proficient on the cello, accompanied his father on his concert-tours (see above), and settled with him in Vienna in 1790. He played a concerto of his father's at a concert of the Tonkünstler-Societat in 1792, and was one of Prince Karl Lichnowsky's famous quartet party, who executed so many of Beethoven's works for the first time. The others were Schuppanzigh, Sina, and Franz Weiss, all young men. In 1796 he became chamber-musician to Prince Lobkowitz, who sent him in 1801 to Berlin, for further study with Louis Duport. There he gave concerts, as well as at Leipzig, Dresden, Prague, and Vienna on his return journey. In 1809 he entered the orchestra of the court-opera, and the King of Wirtemberg hearing him in 1814, at once engaged him for his chapel at Stuttgart. He undertook several more concert-tours (Hummel accompanied him in 1818), but an accident to his hand obliged him to give up playing. He retired on a pension in 1834, and died on May 18, 1853. Among his pupils were Count Wilhorsky, Merk, Birnbach, Wranitzky's sons, and his own son Friedrich, born in Vienna Feb. 12, 1807, entered the chapel at Stuttgart 1824. Among Nicolaus's excellent cello compositions may be specified—a fantasia with quartet, op. 1 (André); concertos, op. 3, 4 (Breitkopfs), and 5 (Peters); scene pastorale with orchestra, dedicated to the King of Wirtemberg, op. 9 (Peters); 8 divertissements progressives with 2nd cello, op. 14 (André); 3 easy duos for 2 cellos, op. 15, and 3 grand duos for ditto, op. 17 (André).
[ C. F. P. ]
KRAKOVIAK, Cracoviak, or Cracovienne. A Polish dance, belonging to the district of Cracow. 'There are usually,' says an eye-witness, 'a great many couples—as many as in an English country dance. They shout while dancing, and occasionally the smart man of the party sings an impromptu couplet suited for the occasion—on birthdays, weddings, etc. The men also strike their heels together while dancing, which produces a metallic sound, as the heels are covered with iron.' The songs, which also share the name, are innumerable and, as is natural, deeply tinged with melancholy. Under the name of Cracovienne the dance was brought into the theatre about the year 1840, and was made famous by Fanny Elssler's performance. The following is the tune to which she danced it; but whether that is a real Krakoviak, or a mere imitation, the writer is unable to say:—
It has been varied by Chopin (op. 14), Herz, Wallace, and others.
[ G. ]
KREBS. A musical family of our own time. Karl August, the head, was the son of A. and Charlotte Miedcke, belonging to the company of the theatre at Nuremberg, where he was born Jan. 16, 1804. The name of Krebs he obtained from the singer of that name at Stuttgart, who adopted him. His early studies were made under Schelble, and in 1825 under Seyfried at Vienna. In March 1827 he settled in Hamburg as head of the theatre, and there passed 23 active and useful years, till called to Dresden in 1850 as Kapellmeister to the court, a post which he filled with honour and advantage till 1871. Since that date he has conducted the orchestra in the Catholic chapel. [App. p.693 "Add date of death of Karl August, May 16, 1880."] His compositions are numerous and varied in kind—masses, operas ('Silva,' 'Agnes'), a Te Deum, orchestral pieces, songs and pianoforte works, many of them much esteemed in Germany. In England, however, his name is known almost exclusively as the father of Miss Mary Krebs, the pianist, born Dec. 5, 1851, at Dresden. On the side of both father and mother (Aloysia Michaelsi [App. p.693 "for Michaelsi read Michalesi"], an operatic singer of eminence, who married Krebs July 20, 1850, and is still living) she inherited music, and like Mme. Schumann was happy in having a father who directed her studies with great judgment. Miss Krebs appeared in public at the early age of 11 (Meissen, 1862), and has since that date been almost continually before the world. Her tours have embraced not only the whole of Germany and England, but Italy, France, Holland, and America. She played at the Gewandhaus first, Nov. 30, 1865. To this country she came in the previous year, and made an engagement with Mr. Gye for four seasons, and her first appearance was at the Crystal Palace, April 30, 1864; at the Philharmonic April 20, 1874; and at the Monday Popular Concerts Jan. 13, 1875. At all these concerts Miss Krebs is often heard, though the 'Populars' enjoy more of her presence than any other. Her repertoire is large, and embraces all the acknowledged classical, orchestral, chamber, and solo pieces, and others of such exceptional difficulty as Schumann's Toccata (op. 7), of which she has more than once given a very fine rendering. She is liked by all who know her, and we trust that she may long continue her visits to this country.
[ G. ]
KREBS, Johann Ludwig, distinguished organist, born at Buttelstadt in Thuringia Oct. 10, 1713. His father, Johann Tobias, himself an excellent organist, for seven years walked every
- For an anecdote on this point see 'Josef Haydn,' by C. F. Pohl vol. i. p. 282.
- See Thayer's 'Beethoven,' vol. ii. p. 278.