Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 3.djvu/105

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quality, the tones vibrating and equal throughout, very skilfully managed, and displaying remark- ably good taste. His deportment as an actor was natural and easy, his action manly and to the purpose, and exhibiting both passion and power, without the least exaggeration.' A fortnight later he performed his first original part, Lyonnel in Balfe's ' Maid of Honour.' In 1848 he was en- gaged at Her Majesty's Theatre, and came out as Carlo in Donizetti's 'Linda di Chamounix.' In the autumn he was engaged at the Norwich Musical Festival, where he showed his ability as an oratorio singer by an extraordinarily fine delivery of 'The enemy said' in 'Israel in Eirypt.' On Nov. 24 following he made his first appearance at the Sacred Harmonic Society in Handel's ' Messiah.' The rapid strides which he was then making towards perfection in oratorio were shown to take a few instances only by his performance in 'Judas Maccabeus' and 'Samson,' 'Elijah,' 'St. Paul,' and ' Lobgesang,' and 'Eli' and 'Naaman' (both composed ex- pressly for him). But his greatest triumph was achieved at the Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace in 1857, when, after singing in ' Messiah ' and ' Judas Maccabeus ' with in- creased reputation, he gave 'The enemy said' in ' Israel in Egypt ' with such remarkable power, fire, and volume of voice, breadth of style, and evenness of vocalisation, as completely elec- trified his hearers. He repeated this wonderful performance at several succeeding festivals. On the stage he has been uniformly successful in all styles, from the simplest old English ballad opera to the most complex modern grand pro- duction. A recent letter from Mr. Reeves, pub- lished in the Times in Nov. 1880, speaks of his intended retirement from public life as an artist in 1882, and shows in its whole tenor how deep an interest is felt by this great singer in the welfare, in his own country, of the art in which he himself has been so successful. Mr. Reeves married, Nov. a, 1850, Miss EMMA LUCOMBE, soprano singer, who had been a pupil of Mrs. Blane Hunt, and appeared at the Sacred Har- monic Society's concert of June 19, 1839, and sang there and at other concerts until 1845, when she went to Italy. She returned in 1848, and appeared in opera as well as at concerts. Mrs. Reeves has for some years past retired from public life and occupied herself as a teacher of singing, for which she has a deservedly high reputation. His son HEBBERT, after a careful education under his father and at Milan, made his successful debut at one of Mr. Ganz's concerts (June 12, 1880), and has already met with great favour from the public. His voice, though not yet so strong as his father's, is of beautiful quality, and in taste, intelligence and phrasing he is all that might be expected from his parentage and education. [W.H.H.] REFORMATION SYMPHONY, THE. Mendelssohn's own name, and that adopted in England, for his Symphony in D minor, written with a view to performance at the Tercentenary Festival of the Augsburg Protestant Confession, which was intended to bs celebrated throughout


Germany on June 25, 1830. The first mention of it appears to be in a letter of his own from North Wales, Sept. 2, 1829. On May 15, 1830, he writes from Weimar that it is finished, and when copied will be sent to Leipzig. It was not however then performed; the political troubles of that year prevented any festive demonstra- tions. In January and March, 1832, it was in rehearsal in Paris, but it did not come to actual performance till Nov. 1832, when it was played under his own direction at Berlin. It was not repeated during his life, but was revived at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, Nov. 30, 1867. It was published in score and parts by Novella & Co., and by Simrock as ' Symphony No. 5 ' Op. 107, No. 36 of the posthumous works. The first Allegro is said to represent the conflict between the old and new religions, and the Finale is founded on Luther's Hymn, 'Ein r veste Burg ist unser Gott.' [G.]

REFRAIN (Fr. Refrain; Germ. Rdmkelir}* This word is used in music to denote what in poetry is called a ' burden,' i. e. a short sentence or phrase which recurs in every verse or stanza. It was probably first employed in music in order to give roundness and unity to the melody, and was then transferred to the poetry which was written especially for music. Such collections as the ' Echos du temps pass ' give an abundance of examples in French music, where songs with refrains are most frequently to be found. ' Lii- liburlero ' may be cited as one English instance out of many. [See vol. ii. p. 138.] [J. A.F.M.]

REGAL (Fr. Regale; It. Regale or Ninfale). An old German name for a very small organ also called ' Bibelorgan ' or ' Bibelregal,' because it was sometimes so small as to fold up into the size of a Church Bible. It had a single rank of reed-pipes only. Praetorius in his Syntagma, vol. iii. pi. iv. gives a view of one, which in its extended condition, bellows and all, appears to be about 3 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. He ascribes (ii. p. 73) the invention to a nameless monk ; others give it to Roll, an organ-builder at Nuremberg in 1575. The specimen preserved in the Mus^e of the Conservatoire at Paris is said to date from the end of the r6th century, and has a compass of

4 octaves. The instrument has been long since extinct, but the name ' regal ' is still applied in Germany to certain reedstops.

In the inventory of Henry VIII's musical instruments we find 13 pairs of single regalls (the 'pair' meant only one instrument) and

5 pair of double regalls (that is with two pipes to each note). The name continued in use at the English Court down to 17/3, the date of the death of Bernard Gates, who was ' tuner of the Regals in the King's household.* [G.}

REGAN, ANNA, soprano singer. [See SCHIMON.]

REGIBO, ABEL BENJAMIN MARIE, born at Renaix in Belgium, April 6, 1835, received his first lessons in music from his father, who was director of the choir of the College of St. Hermes in that town. From infancy Regibo showed a

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