��whole life to music, copying, collating, and com- piling with unwearied industry. As an ecclesi- astic he had the entrte to many libraries and collections generally inaccessible, and set himself to the task of scoring all important works then existing only in parts. In 1820 he issued a catalogue (46 pp., 1000 Nos.) of his music, the MS. of which, containing more than the printed one, is in the collection of the writer. 1 A MS. copy of a 'Catalogo della musica antica, sacra, e madrigalesca, che si trova in Roma via dell' anima no. 50 presso Fortunato Santini/ is in the Fe'tis collection, No. 5166. His learning, and practical knowledge of church-music, made his assistance invaluable to all engaged in musical research. He did much to make German music known in Italy, translating Rammler's ' Tod Jesu ' into Italian, and helping the intro- duction of Graun's music. Mendelssohn writes ('Letters,' Rome, Nov. 2, 1830) ; 'The Abbd has long been on the look-out for me, hoping I should bring the score of Bach's * Passion.' And again (Nov. 8), ' Santini is a delightful acquaintance ; his library of old Italian music is most complete, and he gives or lends me anything and everything.' Then he tells how Santini is trying to get Bach's compositions performed at Naples, and goes on (Nov. 16), 'Old Santini continues to be courtesy personified ; if some evening in company I praise anything, or say I do not know such and such a piece, the very next morning he comes knocking gently at my door with the identical piece folded up in his blue handkerchief. Then I go to him in the evenings, and we are really fond of each other.' In the well-known letter to Zelter, Mendelssohn says, 'He is anxious to make other German music known here, and is at this moment translating your motet, 'Der Mensch lebet,' and Bach's 'Singet demHerrn,' into Latin, and 'Judas Maccabeus' into Italian. He is kind- ness itself, and a very charming old gentleman. . . . Just now his whole mind is absorbed in plans for making German music known in Italy.' Santini even composed pieces in five, six, and eight real parts, much praised by Fetis. The Singakademie of Berlin elected him an honorary member. On the death of his sister he sold his valuable collection, stipulating however for the use of it for life. He is no longer living, but the date of his death is not known. His library is in the episcopal palace at Minister in Westphalia. A pamphlet, 'L'Abbe' Santini et sa collection musicale a Rome' (Florence, 1854), giving a useful re'sume' of its contents, was published by a Russian amateur named Wladimir Stas- soff. [F.G.]
SANTLEY, CHARLES, born at Liverpool, Feb. 28, 1834, * s tne possessor of a baritone voice of fine quality, extensive compass, and great power. He quitted England for Italy, Oct. 1855, and studied at Milan under Gaetano Nava ; returned Oct. 1857, and took lessons from Manuel Garcia. He appeared at St. Martin's Hall as Adam in Haydn's 'Creation,' Nov. 16, 1857, an( l on J an -
i His address is there given Roma, Via Vittoria, No. 49, while in the Fe'tis collection it is Via dell' anima, No. 50.
8, 1858, sang the two parts of Raphael and Adam in the same work at the Sacred Hannonic Society. He first appeared on the English stage at Covent Garden, in the Pyne and Harrison company, as Hoel in ' Dinorah,' in Sept. 1859; and sang in 'Zampa,' 'The Waterman,' and 'Peter the Shipwright,' at the Gaiety in 1870. His first essay in Italian opera was at Covent Garden in 1862, but later in the same season he transferred his services to Her Majesty's Theatre. He first sang at the Meetings of the Three Choirs at Worcester in 1863, at Birmingham Festival in 1864, and at the Handel Festival at the Crystal Palace in 1862, and has since main- tained his position as the first English singer of his class, and during a tour in the United States in 1871 reaped substantial honours there also. Mr. Santley's accomplishments are not confined to music. He has adapted ' Joconde ' to the English stage, and is an enthusiastic amateur painter. On April 9, 1859, he married Miss Gertrude KEMBLE, daughter of John Mitchell Kemble, the eminent Anglo-Saxon scholar, and granddaughter of Charles Kemble. She ap- peared as a soprano singer at St. Martin's Hall in the ' Messiah,' in Dec. 1857, but on her mar- riage retired from public life. [W.H.H.]
SAPHO. Opera in 3 acts ; words by Emile Au- gier, music by Gounod. Produced at the Opera, April 1 6, 1 85 1 . It was reduced to 2 acts and repro- duced July 26, 1858. In Italian, as 'Saffo,' at Covent Garden, Aug. 9, 1851. [G.]
SARABAND, a stately dance once very popular in Spain, France and England. Its origin and derivation have given rise to many surmises. Fuertes ('Historia de la Musica Espanola,' Madrid, 1859) says that the dance was invented in the middle of the i6th century by a dancer called Zarabanda, who, according to other authorities was a native of either Seville or Guayaquil, and after whom it was named. Others connect it with the Spanish Sarao (an entertainment of dancing), and Sir William Ouseley (Oriental Collections, 1728, vol. ii. p. 197, misquoted by Mendel, under 'Saraband'), in a note to a Turkish air called ' Ser-i-Khaneh,' or ' the top of the house,' has the following : 'Some tunes are divided into three parts and are marked Khdne-i 4dni " the second part " and Khdne-i itdUs? " the third part "; near the con- clusion of several we also find the Persian words ser-band, from which, without doubt, our sara- band has been derived.' 2
Whatever its origin may have been, it is found in Europe at the beginning of the i6th century, performed in such a manner as to render its oriental source highly probable. This may be gathered from the following extract from Chapter xii. ' Del baile y cantar llamado Zara- banda,' of the 'Tratado contra los Juegos Pub- licos' ('Treatise against Public Amusements') of Mariana (1536-1623) : 'Entre las otras in- venciones ha salido estos anos un baile y cantar tan lacivo en las palabras, tan feo en las meneos,
2 In a MS. collection of dances in the Music School at Oxford is ft Saraband by Coleman. entitled 'Seribran.'