Large ' spaces,' the depth of the stave, divided the various characters from each other, so that they could be set up and spaced out like ordinary type, a great saving of time being thus effected. In perfecting the process up to double-printing an important stage was reached ; but the production of equally good work from the perfected plates, in one printing, proved an insurmountable diffi- culty, the slightest variation in the impression or register being enough to destroy the beauty of the whole. Machine after machine was tried ; Mr. John Rennie, the engineer, giving all the assistance in his power, but without success. The process, up to double-printing, was all that could be desired, as far as appearance was con- cerned, but was too expensive for the production of cheap music. Mr. Scheurmann risked and lost all he possessed in resolving to be satisfied with nothing less than the full accomplishment of his patent. Messrs. Henderson & Rait, of Marylebone Lane, both of whom had more or less to do with the working of the patents, exhi- bited all that then remained of the plant at the Caxton Celebration at South Kensington in 1878. The beautiful punches are almost com- plete ; but most of the matrices have disappeared. Although Mr. Scheurmann's efforts were not fully successful, it is not too much to say that, indirectly, he was the means of many improve- ments being made in the ordinary music founts during the past thirty years. [W.H.]
SCHICHT, JOHANN GOTTFRIED, born at Reichenau, Zittau, Sept. 29, 1753, owed his education to an uncle ; went to Leipzig univer- sity intending to study law, but gradually adopted music, and was soon chosen by Adam Hiller as solo clavier player at his concerts. On Killer's retirement he succeeded him, and at length in 1810 rose to the head of his pro- fession as Cantor of the St. Thomas School. He died Feb. 16, 1823, leaving a good memory and many original large works, as well as a trans- lation of the PF. Schools of Pleyel and Clementi, and of Pellegrini, Celoni's Singing Method, etc., but only one which will live, his edition of J. S. Bach's motets, five for 8 and one for 5 voices (Breitkopf & Hartel 1802, 3), in which however No. 3 ' Ich lasse dich nicht ' is not by John Sebastian, but by John Christopher, Bach. [G.]
SCHIEDMAYER. There are now two firms of this name in Stuttgart, both enjoying wide re- putation as pianoforte-makers, viz. Schiedmayer & Sons,' and 'Schiedmayer, Pianofortefabrik ; vormals, J. & P. Schiedmayer.' The heads of these firms are the grandsons and great-grandsons of Johann David Schiedmayer, who towards the close of last century was a musical instrument maker at Erlangen, and afterwards at Nuremberg, where he died in 1806. His son Johann Lorenz, went after this for two years to Vienna as a work- man, and in 1 809 established a business at Stutt- gart in partnership with C. F. Dieudonne' (who died in 1825). Before that time pianoforte-making was as good as unknown in Stuttgart; those who required satisfactory instruments obtaining them
���from Vienna. Lorenz Schiedmayer's intelligence and aptness for business gained a position for his firm, and it soon became one of the first in Germany. In 1845 Lorenz united his two eldest sons, Adolf and Hermann, to himself, and ' Schiedmayer & Sons' soon became as well known in foreign coun- tries as in Wiirtemberg. Lorenz died in 1 860 and his son Hermann in 1 86 1 . The sons of the brothers Adolf and Hermann, bearing the same Christian names, have been for some years the directors of this firm, which has made both concert and or- dinary instruments, and has competed with success in London and Paris and other exhibitions. The two younger sons, Julius and Paul, at first devoted themselves to harmonium-making, a practical knowledge of which, then of recent introduction, had been gained by Paul in Paris. They started together in 1854, but after the death of the father, in 1860, turned to pianoforte- making in competi- tion with the elder firm. Julius died in January 1878, and the younger firm has since been known as 'Schiedmayer, Pianofortefabrik.*
Special mention must be made of Julius Schied- mayer's prominence as an expert in the Juries of the great Exhibitions of London 1862, Paris 1867, Vienna 1873, and Philadelphia 1876. [A.J.H.]
SCHIKANEDER, EMMANUEL, theatrical manager, playwright, actor, and singer, born 1751 at Ratisbon, began life as a poor wandering musician, joined some strolling players at Augs- burg in 1773, married the adopted daughter of the manager, and at length undertook the direction himself. In 1780 his wanderings brought him to Salzburg, where he fell in with the Mozarts, and at once began to make a profit out of Wolfgang's talents. In 1 784 we find him in Vienna, giving with Kumpf a series of ex- cellent performances of German opera, comedy, etc., at the Karnthnerthor theater. He appeared on the boards both here and at the Burgtheater, where however he did not succeed. He next took the management of the theatre at Ratisbon, but was recalled to Vienna by his wife, who had undertaken the little theatre lately built in the grounds of Prince Starhemberg's house in the suburb of VVieden, for which Schikaneder re- ceived a privileffium or licence. 1 He had no scruples as to the means to be adopted to make a hit, but in spite of large receipts was continually in difficulty. On one such occasion (March 1791) he had recourse to Mozart, whom he implored to set to music a libretto adapted by himself from a piece by Giesecke, a member of his company. Mozart, always goodnatured, especially to a brother-mason, consented, and from that moment till its completion Schi- kaneder stuck closely to him, and did all he could to keep him amused over his work. The history of the ' Zauberflote ' is well known ; Schikaneder made various suggestions in the composition, took the part of Papageno, and found himself saved from ruin by the success of the opera ; but he showed little gratitude to Mozart, and after his death, instead of helping the
1 It was popularly called Scbikaneder's theatre.