eongs in 20 volumes, edited by Julius Rietz. [See vol. iii. p. 3566, 371 a.] Of Schubert he has further published Lachner's orchestration of 4 Miriam,' a movement of a Quartet in C minor dating from 1820, etc., etc. Also the excellent educational works of Louis Kohler (ops. 47, 50, 79, 112, 128, 150, 151, 152, 175, 190, 270, 280).
Senff is the editor and proprietor of the well- known musical periodical 'Signale fiir die musik- alische Welt.' [See SIGNALE.] [G.]
SENFL or SENFEL, LUDWIO, born at Basel or Basel Augst (Basle) towards the end of the 1 5th century. A volume of MS. songs in the Vienna library contains some verses, written and set to music by Senf 1 himself, describing his early enthu- siasm for music, his education under Heinrich Isaac, and his gratitude to that master. At an early age he entered the Court chapel of Maxi- milian I., ultimately succeeded Isaac as chapel- master, and held that office till the emperor's death (Jan. 1519), on which occasion he wrote music to the words ' Quis dabit oculis nostris fontem lacrimarum.' In 1 5 20 he was at Augsburg, received a present of 50 gulden from Charles V. on Feb. 19, and in the following November per- sonally edited the ' Liber selectarum Cantionum,' one of the first music books printed in Germany. Thence he went to Munich, though in what capacity is uncertain. On one title-page (1526) he is called ' Musicus intonator,' on another (1534) 'Musicus primarius,' of the duke of Bavaria, while in his own letters he subscribes himself simply 'Componist zu Miinchen.' The date of his death is unknown. In Forster's collection of Liedlein (preface dated Jan. 31, 1556) he is spoken of as ' L. S. seliger ' (i. e. dead) ; and if the title ' musicus primarius ' stands for ' chapel- master ' he must have died or retired some years before, since Ludwig Daser had held that office for some years when Lassus went to Munich in
The well-known letter from Luther to Senfl 1 is no evidence that the composer had worked specially for the Reformed Church, though the existence of the correspondence has given rise to that idea. Indeed his connection with the strictly Catholic court of Munich would, as Fdtis points out, render it most improbable. 2 Four letters written by Senfl to the Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg and to Georg Schultheis are printed in the ' Allgemeine Musik. Zeitung ' for Aug. I a, 1863.
A portrait engraved on a medal by Hagenauer of Augsburg, with the inscription 'Ludovvicus Senfel,' and on the reverse ' Psallam deo meo quamdiu fuero 1529,' is in the collection of coins and medals at Vienna.
The royal library at Munich contains the manuscript church service books begun by Isaac and completed by Senfl, as well as manuscript masses by the latter. His most important pub- lished works are (i) 'Quinque salutationes D.N. Hiesu Christi,' etc. (Norimbergae 1526)5(2) ' Varia
i Dated Coburg, Oct. 4, 1530. The letter is printed in 'Dr. M. Luther's Gedanken iiber die Musik, 1 F. A. Beck (Berlin 1823), p. 58. a -Biograpbie des Musicieus/ vi. 44.
��carminum genera, quibus turn Horatius, turn alii
egregiae poetae harmoniis composita' (id.
J 534); (3) * 121 ewe Lieder' (id. 1534), with 8 1 nos. by L. S. ; (4) ' Magnificat octo tonorura, a 4' (id. 1537); (5) '115 guter newer Liedlein' (id. 1544), with 64 nos. by L. S. Besides these Eitner 8 names above loo separate pieces printed in various collections of the i6th century. In modern notation 9 sacred pieces (a 4) are given by Winterfeld in 'Der evangelische Kirchen- gesang' (Leipsic 1843), and 5 Lieder by Liliencron in 'Die historischen Volkslieder der Deutschen* (Leipzig 1 865-69). ( J. R. S.-B.]
SENNET also written SENET, SENNATB, SYNNET, CYNET, SIGNET or SIGNATE a word which occurs in stage-directions in the plays of the Elizabethan dramatists, and is used to denote that a particular fanfare is to be played. It is a technical term, and what particular notes were played is now unknown. A Sennet was dis- tinguished from a Flourish, as is proved by a stage-direction in Dekker's Satiromastix,' ' Trumpets sound a florish, and then a sennate.' (Nares' Glossary.) [W.B.S.]
SENZA, 'without' as Senza organo, 'with- out organ ' ; a direction of frequent occurrence throughout Handel's organ concertos ; Senza re- petizione, 'without repeat' [see REPEAT]; Senza tempo, 'without time,' which occurs in Schu- mann's Humoreske, op. 20, in the movement marked Precipitoso. The right hand is marked Come senza tempo (' Wie ausser tempo,' in Ger- man), while the left remains in tempo. The same direction is employed at the end of Chopin's Nocturne, op. 9, no. 3. [J.A.F.M.]
SENZA PIATTI (without the cymbals) in- dicates that the bass -drum only is to be played, as in the first allegro of theOverture to 'Guillaume Tell.' [DRUM 3, last paragraph.] [V. de P.]
SEPTET (Fr. Septuor; Ital. Septetto). A composition for seven instruments or voices, with or without accompaniment.
There is no instance, among the works of the great composers, of a septet for strings only, though there are several octets (Mendelssohn, Bargiel, Raff, Gade, Svendsen, etc.). Beethoven's famous Septet for Strings and Wind naturally heads the list, and Hummel's for Piano, Strings, and Wind is the next best known, though far in- ferior to Spohr's difficult and brilliant work for a similar combination (op. 147). The great paucity of instrumental septets is probably owing to the fact that wind instruments are too full and powerful in tone to sound well with single strings, or even the piano. A striking instance of this in- compatibility is accorded by Saint-Saens' recently produced Septet for Piano, Strings and Trumpet; but, truth to say, whenever we hear even Bee- thoven's Septet or Schubert's Octet, we hare the impression of an exceedingly feeble orchestra, and yearn for the proper fulness of string power, albeit these works are not in the least orchestral.
Operatic situations have seldom given rise to, or opportunity for, vocal septets, but the 'Bibliographic' (Berlin 1877).