but gave up the bar for music. He was a pupil of Ambroise Thomas at the Conservatoire, and took the 'Grand prix ' in 1871 for a cantata (Jeanne d'Arc) of great promise. On his return from Italy, despairing of acceptance at the Ope'ra Comique, he closed with the Bouffes Parisiens, and produced ' La Branche casse*e ' (3 acts, Jan. 23, 1874), with a success which induced him to go on composing works of the same slight character. ' Le Manoir du Pic Tordu ' (May 28, 1875), 'Le Moulin du Vert galant' (April 12, 1876), and 'La Petite Muette' (Oct. 3, 1877), all in 3 acts, followed in Paris, and ' La Nuit de St. Germain' (March 1 880) in Brussels. Neither this nor ' Koby,' composed in Rome, have been published, though the former contains pretty flowing music. Some of Serpette's detached melodies show that lie might succeed in a higher class of work than he has yet attempted. His last feat is 'Madame le Diable' (April 5, 1882), composed for Jeanne Granier, the favourite sing- ing actress of 'La Renaissance' theatre. [G.C.]
SERVA PADRONA, LA the maid turned mistress. An Italian intermezzo, or piece in 2 acts, containing 3 characters, one of whom is a mute. Words by Nelli, music by Pergolesi. Written and produced at Naples in 1 731 or 1 733, and in Paris first on October 4, 1746, at the Theatre Italien, where it had a long run, and again at the Acaddmie on August I, 1752. This was followed by an obstinate contest between the reformers, headed by Rousseau, and the conserva- tive musicians ' Guerre des Lullistes et des Bouffonistes.' In 1754 a translation, 'La ser- vante maitresse,' was brought out, and had a run of 150 consecutive nights. It was revived, Aug. 13, 1862, at the Opera Comique, for the debut of Mme. Galli-Marie, and was given in London, at the 'Royalty,' March 7, 1873. An imitation of Nelli's libretto, with the same title, was composed by Paisiello during his stay at St. Petersburg. [G.]
SERVAIS, ADBIEN FRA^OTS, a great violon- cellist, was born at Hal, near Brussels, June 7, 1807. His study of music began early, but it was not till he heard a solo by Platel on the cello, tliat he fixed on the instrument on which he became so famous. He became a pupil of Platel's in the Brussels Conservatoire, where he rapidly rose to the first rank. At the advice of Fe"tis he went to Paris, where his suc- cess was great. In 1835 he visited England, and on May 25 played a concerto of his own at the Philharmonic Concert, where he was announced as ' principal violoncello to the King of the Bel- gians.' He then returned home, and wisely re- solved to study for a year, and it was during this period that he formed the style by which he was afterwards known. In 1836 he reappeared in Paris, and the next dozen years were occupied in a series of long tours through Germany, Holland, Austria, Norway, Russia, and even Siberia. In 1842 he married in St. Petersburg. In 1848 he settled at Brussels as Professor in the Conserva- toire, and formed many distinguished pupils. He
��died at his native village Nov. 26, 1866, of an illness contracted during his third visit to Pt burg. His works comprise 3 Concertos, and 16 Fantasies, for cello and orchestra ; 6 Etudes for cello and PF. with Grdgoir ; 14 Duos for ditto ; 3 Duets for violin and cello with Leonard ; one Duet for ditto with Vieuxtemps. His honours were many, and gave point to Rossini's Ion tuot that he was the King of Cellists still more than the Cellist of Kings. Servais' tastes were very simple, and his great delight was to slip on a blouse and (like Mozart) play skittles. At the close of his life he became very stout, and the peg now used to support the cello is said to have been invented by him as a relief. A biography of Servais was published at Hal by Vanderbroeck Desmeth, 1866. His eldest son JOSEPH, born at Hal Nov. 28, 1850, succeeded his father in June 1872 as professor of the cello at the Brussels Conservatoire. He appeared first at Warsaw with his father, and the pair excited the greatest enthusiasm. In 1868 he was appointed solo violoncellist at Weimar and remained two years. In 1875 b e P^yed for the first time in Paris at one of Pasdeloup's Popular Concerts, when some of the journals spoke in terms of extravagant praise of his performance. The instrument used by both father and son is a fine Stradivarius pre- sented by the Princess Yousoupoff. A second son, FRANCIS MATTHIEU was a pupil in the same establishment. [T.P.H.]
SERVICE. In matters relating to the Church this word is used in two totally different senses ; first, as a rough translation of Officium, Ordo, Situs, as \vhen we say Communion-service, Or- dination-service, and so on ; next as a purely musical term, as when we say 'Wesley's Service in E,' etc. It is with this latter application of the word only that we have here to deal.
A Service may be defined as a collection of musical settings of the canticles and other por- tions of the liturgy which are by usage allowed to be set to free composition. The term there- fore excludes all versicles or responses, or other portions founded onplainsong ; all chants, whether Gregorian or Anglican ; and all anthems, as their words are not necessarily embodied in the liturgy, but selected at will. On the other hand, it includes the Nicene Creed, Gloria in excelsis, and other portions of the liturgy which have from the most ancient times received a more or less free musical treatment.
The origin of the acceptance of the term in this limited musical sense is somewhat obscure. The gradual disuse of distinctive names of offices such, for instance, as Matins, Vespers, Mass, etc. after the Reformation, helped to bring the generic word 'service' into very general use; and it has therefore been supposed that musicians called their compositions ' services ' because they were set to certain unvarying portions of the church 'services.' But this explanation is far from satisfactory, for obvious reasons ; it gives too much latitude to the term, and offers no reason why it should ever have become limited to its present meaning. But a much more simple