��2. Written. Performed.
��These two modes of performance differ con- siderably in effect, because the accent, which is always perceptible, however slight it may be, is given in the one case to the principal and in the other to the subsidiary note, and it is therefore important to ascertain which of the two methods should be adopted in any given case. The question has been discussed with much fervour by various writers, and the conclusions arrived at have usually taken the form of a fixed adherence to one or other of the two modes, even in appa- rently unsuitable cases. Most of the earlier masters, including Emanuel Bach, Marpurg, Turk, etc., held that all trills should begin with the upper note, while Hummel, Czerny, Moscheles, and modern teachers generally (with some ex- ceptions) have preferred to begin on the principal note. This diversity of opinion indicates two different views of the very nature and meaning of the shake ; according to the latter, it is a trem- bling or pulsation the reiteration of the prin- cipal note, though subject to continual momentary interruptions from the subsidiary note, gives a certain undulating effect not unlike that of the tremulant of the organ ; according to the former, the shake is derived from the still older appoggia- tura, and consists of a series of appoggiaturas with their resolutions is in fact a kind of elabo- rated appoggiatura, and as such requires the accent to fall upon the upper or subsidiary note. This view is enforced by most of the earlier authorities ; thus Marpurg says, ' the trill derives its origin from an appoggiatura (Vorschlag von oberi) and is in fact a series of descending ap- poggiaturas executed with the greatest rapidity.' And Emanuel Bach, speaking of the employment of the shake in ancient (German) music, says ' formerly the trill was usually only introduced after an appoggiatura,' and he gives the following example
���Nevertheless, the theory which derives the shake from a trembling or pulsation, and there- fore places the accent on the principal note, in which manner most shakes in modern music are executed, has the advantage of considerable, if not the highest antiquity. 1 For Caccini, in his Singing School (published 1601), describes the triUo as taught by him to his pupils, and says that it consists of the rapid repetition of a single note, and that in learning to execute it the singer must begin with a crotchet and strike each note afresh upon the vowel a (ribattere ciascuna nota con la gola, sopra la vocale a). Curiously enough he also mentions another grace
i The exact date of the introduction of the trill is not known, but Oonsorti, a celebrated singer (1590), is said to have been the first who could sing a trill. (Schilling, ' Lezikou der Toukunst.')
which he calls Gruppo, which closely resembles the modern shake. . 4. Trillo.
��And Play ford, in his 'Introduction to the Skill of Musick' (1655) quotes an anonymous treatise on ' the Italian manner of singing,' in which precisely the same two graces are described. 2 Commenting on the shake Playford says, ' I have heard of some that have attained it after this manner, in singing a plain-song of six notes up and six down, they have in the midst of every note beat or shaked with their finger upon their throat, which by often practice came to do the same notes exactly without.' It seems then clear that the original intention of a shake was to produce a trembling effect, and so the modern custom of beginning with the principal note may beheld justified.
In performing the works of the great masters from the time of Bach to Beethoven then, it should be understood that, according to the rule laid down by contemporary teachers, the shake begins with the upper or subsidiary note, but it would not be safe to conclude that this rule is to be invariably followed. In some cases we find the opposite effect definitely indicated by a small note placed before the principal note of the shake, and on the same line or space, thus
5. MOZART (ascribed to), ' Une fievre,' Var. 3. tr tr
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and even when there is no small note it is no doubt correct to perform all shakes which are situated like those of the above example in the same manner, that is, beginning with the principal note. So therefore a shake at the commencement of a phrase or after a rest (Ex. 6), or after a downward leap (Ex. 7), or when preceded by a note one degree below it (Ex. 8), should begin on the principal note.
6. BACH, Prelude No. 16, Vol. i.
��MOZART, Concerto in Bb. Andante _____ _____ tr
��BACH, Art of Fugue, No. 8.
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��2 The author of this treatise is said by Playford to have been a pupil of the celebrated Scipione della Palla, who was also Cacciui's master.