to be overlooked in performance, and is therefore used in all important passages as for instance, in certain canons where the leading part has a strongly accented note which is to be brought out with equal force in the imitating part. Good in- stances occur in Beethoven's Sonata for violin and piano in C minor, Op. 30, No. 2, in the trio of the Scherzo ; in Schumann's Etudes Symphon- iques Variations, etc. [J.A.F.M.]
SGAMBATI, GIOVANNI, a remarkable pianist and composer, was born at Home May 28, 1843. His mother was English, the daughter of Joseph Gott, sculptor, a native of London, who had for many years practised his art in Rome. Giovanni was intended for his father's profession, that of an advocate, and would have been educated with that view but for his strong turn for music.
After the death of the father in 1849 the mother migrated with her two children to Trevi in Umbria, where she married again. The boy learned the piano and harmony from Natalucci, a former pupil of Zingarelli's at the Conservatorio of Naples ; and from the age of six often played in public, sang contralto solos in church, con- ducted small orchestras, and was known as the author of several sacred pieces. In the year 1 860 he settled at Rome and soon became famous for his playing, and for the classical character of his programmes. His favourite composers were Beethoven, Chopin, and Schumann, and he was an excellent interpreter of the fugues of Bach and Handel. Shortly after this he was on the point of going to Germany to study, when Liszt's arrival in Rome saved him from that necessity. With him Sgambati worked long and diligently. He soon began to give orchestral concerts, at which the symphonies and concertos of the Ger- man masters were heard in Rome for the first time under his baton. In 1864 he wrote a String Quartet ; in 1 866 a PF. Quintet (F minor, op. 4) ; in 1 867, an Octet, a second PF. Quintet (G minor, op. 5), an Overture for full orchestra, to Cassa's ' Cola di Rienzi,' etc., etc. He conducted Liszt's ' Dante' Symphony at Rome, Feb. 26, 1866, with great success and credit to himself. In 1869 Liszt and he made a visit to Germany together, and at Municli Sgambati heard Wagner's music for the first time. In 1870 he published an album of 5 songs (Blanchi), which was quickly followed by other vocal pieces. Sgambati had for some time attracted the notice of Herr von Keudell, the well-known amateur, and Prussian Ambas- sador at Rome. At the orchestral concerts which he conducted at the Embassy, several of his works were first heard ; and there, in 1877, ne an( i hi s music first made the favour- able acquaintance of Wagner, through whose recommendation the two quintets and other pieces were published by Schotts of Mayence. En- couraged by this well-merited recognition he composed a Prelude and Fugue for the PF. (op. 6), a Festival Overture, a Concerto for PF. and or- chestra, a second String Quartet, various PF. pieces, and a Symphony for full orchestra. The symphony was produced at a concert in the Quirinal, March 28, 1881, in presence of the
�� ��King and Queen of Italy, and other great personages. Its success was great, and the King conferred on Sgambati the order of the Crown of Italy on the occasion. In 1882 he made his first visit to England, and performed his PF. Concerto at the Philharmonic of May u, and his Sym- phony at the Crystal Palace, June 10. Both works were well received, but the symphony made much the greater impression of the two. Though original in ideas and character it adheres to the established forms ; it *is at once thought fully worked out and gracefully expressed, wi* a great deal of effect and no lack of counterpoiL and it left a very favourable impression.
In 1869 Sgambati founded a free PF. class in the Academy of St. Cecilia at Rome. This has since been adopted as part of the foundation of the Academy, and in 1878 he himself becam professor of the piano and a member of tl Direction.
The following list shows the chief of his pu lished works to this date (July 1882).
��Op. 1. Album of 5 songs (Blanch!).
2. Album of logout's (Kicordi).
4. Quintet for PF. and strings
5. Quintet ditto. (G minor).
6. Prelude and Fugue in Eb
minor, PF. solo. 7. 8.
��10. 2 Etudes for FF. solo : 1
InDb; 2 in FJ minor. 11.
12. Fogll volanti. 13.
15. Concerto in G minor for
16. Symphony In D. TQ. 1
��SHAKE or TRILL (Fr. Trille, formerly Tremblement, Cadence; Ger. Triller; Ital. Trillo). The shake, one of the earliest in use among the ancient graces, is also the chief and most frequent ornament of modern music, both vocal and in- strumental. It consists of the regular and rapid alternation of a given note with the note above, such alternation continuing for the full duration of the written note.
The shake is the head of a family of orna- ments, all founded on the alternation of a principal note with a subsidiary note one degree either above or below it, and comprising the Mordent a,nd.Pralltriller [see MORDENT] still in use, and the RIBATTUTA (Ger. Zurucksddag} and Battement*- (Ex. i), both of which are now obsolete. 1. Battement.
��The sign of the shake is in modern music tr. (generally followed by a waved line if over a long note), and in older music tr. **, ***, and occasionally -*-, placed over or under the note; and it is rendered in two different ways, begin- ning with either the principal or the upper note, as in example 2 :
Rousseau (Diet, de Muslque) describes the Pallement as a trill which differed from the ordinary trill or cadence only iu beginning with the principal instead of the subsidiary note. In this he is certainly mistaken, since the battement is described by all other writers as an alternation of the principal note with the note below.