SOCIETY, THE MUSICAL ARTISTS'.
Sonatas (PF. and Violin\ F. Davenport, W. H. Holmes, E. Sharp, E. H. Thome, H. Westrop, Emily Lawrence.
Sonatas (PF. and Cello , Alg. Aahton, B. Ellicott, O. Prescott, E. H. Thorne, E. Sharp.
Sonatas (PF.), H. C. Bannister, C. Gardner, G. Gear, G. A. Macfarren, A. O'Leary. [W.B.S.j
SODERMAN, JOHAN AUGUST, one of the greatest Swedish composers of modern times, was born in Stockholm, July 17, 1832 his father be- ing director of the orchestra at a minor theatre and at an early age displayed traces of musical genius. When 1 8 years of age he was selected by Stjernstrom, the director of the orchestra at the Royal theatre in Stockholm, as instructor to a company of musicians, then on a tour to Finland. On hid return Soderman wrote his first operetta, with the fantastic title, * The Devil's first rudi- ments of Learning,' which was performed at the Mindre theatre at Stockholm, Sept. 14, 1856. During the following two years he stayed in Leipzig, studying under Richter andHauptmann ; in the year 1860 he was appointed chorus-master at the Royal Opera in Stockholm ; and from that date until his election as a member of the Swedish Academy of Music, his life was occupied in such minor offices in the musical world as are too often the lot of great composers when cast in a small community. But however poor the offices he held, Soderman filled them with a sincerity and zeal which many a man of inferior talents mi.^ht have envied.
His works are about 60 in number operettas, songs, ballads, part-songs, funeral marches and cantatas ; of which, however, only half have been printed, and these at the expense of the Swedish government after his death. Of the printed works we can only mention a few, besides the above- mentioned, namely 2 operettas, ' The wedding at Ulfasa,' and 'ReginavonEmmeritz'; overture to ' The Maid of Orleans ' ; songs ; ' Trios for male voices,' containing the Finnish national air 'Suomi sang'; a Circassian dance, and a concert- overture, also ' Sacred songs for organ,' contain- ing a number of hymns of great beauty and purity, of which the best known are a Benedic- tus and an Agnus Dei. Though a protestant, his chef-d'oeuvre is a Mass for solos, chorus and orchestra, which has only been twice performed in Stockholm, but is considered by his coun- trymen as equal to any by the great composers, and which is animated by such sincere devotion, and stamped by such a high degree of originality and masterly finish, as to rank among the choicest gems of Swedish music.
Another of his works worth mention is his music to the poetry of Bellman. This poet, whose genius is akin to that of Marlowe, has written a number of rhapsodies, depicting the gay, jovial, and careless nature of the Swede, with a force of animal spirit and genuine originality which few other poets have equalled ; and to these produc- tions, which every Swede knows by heart, Soder- man set music.
The foreign composers who seem to have in- fluenced his more elaborate productions are Beethoven, Schubert, and, in particular, Schu- mann. His compositions, though thoroughly VOL. in. PT. 5.
��Swedish, are not national ; they bear the im- press of the vigorous and energetic nature of the Northerner, which makes Scandinavian composi- tions so charming. Soderman died Feb. 10, 1876, at the early age of 44, and a national subscription was at once raised in Sweden for the benefit of his widow and children. It was a token of the gratitude and respect of a musical nation for a great composer. [C.S.]
SOGGETTO. The Italian term for ' subject,' as the theme of a movement. Thus in No. 12 of Bach's ' Musikalisches Opfer,' Frederick the Great's theme is called ' II Soggetto reale.' [See SUBJECT.] [G.]
SOL. The fifth note of the natural scale ac- cording to the nomenclature of France and Italy ; in English and German G. In the old hymn from which Guido is supposed to have formed the scale it occurs as follows :
Ut queant laxis resonare fibris, Mini gestorum/amuli tuorum, Solve pollutis tobia reatis.
The number of double vibrations to produce sol (treble G) is Paris normal pitch, 39 1 .5 ; London ' Philharmonic pitch,' 405. [G.]
SOLDATENLIEBSCHAFT Soldiers' love. A i -act opera, containing an overture and 16 numbers, written by Mendelssohn in 1821 (his 1 3th year). The author of the words is unknown. The autograph is in the Mendelssohn archives in the Berlin Library. The work was evidently a favourite with its author, for he proposed to re- peat it for the silver .wedding of his parents, with an operetta to be written by Fanny, and his own ' Heimkehr aus der Fremde.' It does not appear however to have been then performed. [G.]
SOLENNIS, i. e. Solemn. ' Missa solennis ' is a term employed to designate a mass on a grand scale. Those of Beethoven in D, Schubert in Ab (no. 5), and Liszt's 'Graner-Messe' are so entitled. Four of Cherubini's in C, E, G, and Bb are called ' Messe Solennelle,' but not that in A for the coronation of Charles X. , which is for 3 voices only. Gounod's Mass in G, and Rossini's in A minor, have the same title. The term answers to the < Hohe Messe ' of Bach. [G.]
SOL-FA. ' To sol-fa ' is to sing a passage or a piece of vocal music, giving to the notes, not the words, but the syllables, Do (C), Re (D), Mi (E), Fa (F), Sol (G), La (A), Si (B), Do (C). Why the two syllables Sol and Fa should have been chosen to desig- nate this process in prefer- ence to Do Re, or Re Mi, does not appear.
It may be convenient here to give the scale with the syllables for sharps or flats, as fixed by Mr. Hullah in his 'Method of Teaching Singing' (Longmans, 1880).
In a hymn recently written by Arrigo Boito and composed by Mancinelli, for the opening of the monument of Guido d'Arezzo at Rome, the seven syllables are thus employed :