the 14th century there remain frequent examples, notably at Florence, in the famous Organ Podium of Luca della Robbia, a cast of which is in the South Kensington Museum.
But other forms were admired. Exactly like an Arabic kanun is a psaltery painted A.D. 1348 by that loving delineator of musical instruments, Orcagna, himself a musician, in his 'Trionfo della Morte,' at Pisa. The strings of the instrument are in groups of three, each group, as in a grand piano, being tuned in unison to make one note. Sometimes there were groups of four, a not unfrequent stringing in the Dulcimer. There is a good coloured lithograph of Orcagna's fresco in 'Les Arts au Moyen Age,' by Paul Lacroix (Paris, 1874, p. 282); it is there called 'Le songe de la Vie.' A fine representation of such a psaltery, strung in threes, by Orcagna, will be found in our National Gallery (Catalogue No. 569).
[ A. J. H. ]
PUCITTA, Vincenzo, was born at Rome [App. p781 "Civita Vecchia"], 1778, and brought up at the Pietà, at Naples, under Fenaroli and Sala. He wrote his first opera for Sinigaglia, near Ancona, and from that time till his death composed for the stage diligently. 'I due Prigionieri' (Rome 1801) was the first to make him widely known. He was, however, often away from Italy, first at Lisbon, where he brought out 'L'Andromacca,' and then in London, where he became for a time Director of the Music at the Opera.
His name first appears in 1809, when three of his operas were performed—'I Villeggiaturi bizarri,' 'La Caccia d'Enrico IV,' and 'Le quattro Nazioni.' In 1810 we find his 'La Vestale,' in 1811 'La tre Sultane,' in 1812 'La Ginevra di Scozia,' in 1813 'Boadicea,' and in 1814 'Aristodemo.' He then left the Opera and travelled with Madame Catalani; and when, in 1813, she took the direction of the Italian Opera at Paris, he became accompanyist, and three of his works were brought out there in 1815, 16 and 17. He then went to Rome, and remained in Italy till his death, at Milan, Dec. 20, 1861. Fétis gives a list of 23 of his operas, and says that his music shows great facility but no invention. Ten volumes of his songs, entitled 'Mille Melodie,' are published by Ricordi.
[ G. ]
PUGET, Loisa, born at Paris about 1810; though an amateur, achieved an extraordinary popularity in the reign of Louis Philippe by her songs, composed to Gustave Lemoine's words. Among the best known of these were, 'A la grâce de Dieu,' 'Ave Maria,' 'Le Soleil de ma Bretagne,' 'Ta dot,' 'Mon pays,' 'Les rêves d'une jeune fille,' etc. Musically speaking they are inferior to those of Panseron, Labarre, or Masini; but the melodies were always so natural and so suited to the words, and the words themselves were so full of that good, bourgeois character, which at that time was all the fashion in France, that their vogue was immense. Encouraged by her success, Puget aspired to the theatre. She took lessons from Adolphe Adam, and on Oct. 1, 1836, produced at the Opera Comique a one-act piece, 'Le mauvais Œil,' which was sung to perfection by Ponchard and Mme. Damoreau. In 1842 she married Lemoine, and finding the popularity of her songs on the wane, had the tact to publish no more. She broke silence only once again with an operetta called 'La Veilleuse, ou les Nuits de Milady,' produced at the Gymnase, Sept. 27, 1869. Madame Lemoine has for some time resided at Pau, where she is still living (1881).
[ G. C. ]
PUGNANI, Gaetano, celebrated violinist, was born at Turin (or according to another source at Canavese) in 1727. He must be considered as one of the best representatives of the Piedmontese School of violin-playing. Being a pupil first of Somis, who studied under Corelli, and afterwards of Tartini, he combined the prominent qualities of the style and technique of both these great masters. He was appointed first violin to the Sardinian court in 1752, and began to travel in 1754. He made lengthened stays at Paris and in London, where he was for a time leader of the opera band, produced an opera of his own (Burney, Hist. iv. 494), and published trios, quartets, quintets, and symphonies. In 1770 Burney found him at Turin, and there he remained as leader, conductor, teacher and composer, for the rest of his life. He died in 1803.
To Pugnani more than to any other master of the violin appears to be due the preservation of the pure grand style of Corelli, Tartini and Vivaldi, and its transmission to the next generation of violinists. Apart from being himself an excellent player he trained a large number of eminent violinists such as Conforti, Bruni, Polledro and, above all, Viotti. He was also a prolific composer: he wrote a number of operas and ballets, which however appear not to have been very successful. Fétis gives the names of 9, and a list of his published instrumental compositions:—one violin-concerto (out of 9), 3 sets of violin-sonatas, duos, trios, quartets, quintets, and 12 symphonies for strings, oboes and horns.
[ P. D. ]