��at all. The writer has tried the effect of en- veloping the entire instrument in a bag of wash- leather, from which the mouthpiece alone emerges. A slit on each side admits the hands of the player, and a stifled tone is the result, not, however, of sufficiently striking peculiarity to warrant its use as a special effect ; while the quick rise of temperature inside the bag throws the instrument out of tune directly.
The laying of any substance, even .a handker- chief, on the kettledrums is sufficient to check the vibrations and produce a muffled effect. In the ' Dead March' the big drum is usually beaten enveloped in its cover.
Various means have been used to obtain sour- dine effects from voices. Berlioz, like Gossec before him [see vol. i. 6na], has employed the device of a chorus in a room behind the orchestra ('L'Enfance du Christ') and the interposition of a veil, or curtain ('Lelio'). He has also sug- gested that the chorus should hold their music before their mouths, or should sing with their backs to the audience. One important effect, however, deserves more attention than it has received. French composers, especially Gounod, are fond of that striking device called d, bouche fermee. The choir hums an accompaniment with- out words, keeping the mouth quite, or nearly, closed. But composers have lost sight of the fact that several totally distinct effects may be thus produced, and they usually confuse the matter still more by writing the sound 'A-a-a* underneath the music just the very sound which can not possibly be produced by a closed mouth. The effect would be better designated by writing the exact sound intended, and consequently the exact position of the mouth. For instance, by closing the lips entirely, the sound of *n' or 'm' may be hummed through the nose. By opening the lips slightly either of the vowel-sounds may be used, each making a distinct effect. Comical and quite original effects might be got by sustain- ing such sounds as ' z-z' (buzzed), 'r-r ' (rattled), or 'ii' (pursing up the lips). These, however, do not properly belong to our subject.
The concealed orchestra at Bayreuth is a spe- cimen of a whole orchestra with the tone veiled and covered. Opinions differ as to the satis- factory result of this plan. However good for Wagner's heavy scoring it would probably spoil such instrumentation as that of Gounod or Ber- lioz. [F.C.] ^ SORIA.DE, JULES DIAZ, aremarkable baritone singer, was born of Jewish Portuguese parents at Bourdeaux, April 28, 1843. His musical ability showed itself early, and at 13 he already sang solos. Though a member, and a very active member, of a wine house in his native city, and therefore strictly an amateur, M. de Soria is as widely known as if he were a professional musi- cian, which he might well have been had he chosen to forsake commerce for music. He has chosen to combine both. He has travelled over the greater part of Europe, and has produced the same remarkable effect everywhere from the singular beauty of his voice, and the exquisite
taste and tact with which he manages it. In Rome, Venice, Vienna, Paris, St. Petersburg, and Athens (where he assisted in founding the Conservatoire), and in other cities of the Con- tinent he is well known in the best and highest musical circles. The same in London, which he visited in 1867 an d 1872, and where he made many and lasting friends. Gounod, Feli- cien David, Massenet, Lenepveu, Faure and others, have written pieces expressly for him, and his interpretations of the songs of Schubert and Schumann are worthy of all praise. He has appeared also on the boards both at Paris and Nice with success. His voice is a high bari- tone, and his management of it peculiarly good and effective. [G.]
SORIANO (or SURIANO, or SURIANI), FRANCESCO, was born at Rome in 1549, and at the age of 15 entered the choir at S. John Lateran. After the breaking of his voice he became a pupil of Montanari, then of G. M. Nanini, and lastly of Palestrina. After this his fame went on always increasing. In 1581 we find him Maestro di cappella at S. Ludovico dei Frances! ; in 1587 at S. Maria Magrgiore ; in 1 599 at S. John Lateran. He returned however to S. Maria Maggiore, and in 1603 made his final step to the head of the choir of S. Peter's. He died in Jan. 1620, and was buried at S. Maria Maggiore. Soriano published his first work in 1581, a book of madrigals a 5. This was fol- lowed by a second in 1592 ; by two books a 4, 1 60 1, 1602 ; by a book of masses for 4, 5 and 6 voices, 1609; and by a collection of no canons on 'Ave Maris Stella.' His last work was a Magnificat and Passione a 4, Rome 1619, con- taining his portrait. A complete list of his works is given in Kiesewetter's Baini, p. 233. He will be remembered longest for having arranged Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli for 8 voices. The Passion already mentioned, a Magnificat and 5 Antiphons, are included in Proske's Mu- SICA DIVINA, vols. iii. and iv., and 2 Masses in the ' Selectus novus.' [G.]
SORIANO-FUERTES, MARIANO, a Spanish composer and litterateur, according to Riemann was the son of a musician, and so determined in his pursuit of music that though forced into a cavalry regiment he left it for the musical career. His works were many, and in many spheres ; in 1841 he founded a periodical 'Iberia musical y literaria'; in 1843 became teacher in the Con- servatoire at Madrid; in 1844 director of the Lyceums at Cordova, Seville, and Cadiz ; con- ductor of the opera at Seville, Cadiz, and (1852) at Barcelona, where he founded the 'Gaceta Musical Barcelonesa ' in 1 860. During this period he wrote several ' Zarguelas ' or operettas ; but it is from his literary works that he will derive hischief fame 'MusicaArabo-Espafiola' (1853) ; 'History of Spanish music from the Phoenicians down to 1850 ' (4 vols. 1855-59); 'Memoir on the Choral Societies of Spain,' and ' Spain, artistic and industrial in the Exposition of 1867.' Soriano died at Madrid in April 1880. [G.]