harmonies and modulations in many various posi- tions, by the practice of which a much more per- feet mastery is gained over difficulties than could possibly result from the study of any composition offering a greater variety of passages.
But studies such as those described form but a part of what is required for the perfecting of execution. So soon as a certain degree of facility has been attained, and correct habits formed, studies affording a far greater amount of musical interest, though still constructed on the same lines, have to be attacked. Pre-eminent among these are the studies of Cramer, dementi (Gradus ad Parnassian), Moscheles (ops. 70 and 95), and Haberbier (Etudes Poesies), many of which are extremely interesting and attractive works. Other studies there are which have for their object the development of the execution in some one special direction, such as Heller's 'Art of Phrasing,' op. 1 6, Killer's 'Rhythmische Studien,' op. 56, Thai- berg's 'L'art du Chant applique" au Piano,' etc , the intention of which is sufficiently indicated by their titles, Lastly there are the so-called Concert Studies (in German Vortragsstudien studies of performance) usually of extreme diffi- culty, and valuable to the student, as affording an insight into the nature of the special difficulties to be met with in the other works of their re- spective composers, together with practice in the means of conquering them, and to the artist, as forming short pieces of great brilliancy, suitable for the concert room. Among the principal studies of this kind may be named those of Chopin, Henselt, Liszt, Rubinstein, and Schumann (Etudes Symphoniques). [F.T.]
STUCK, German for Piece. A 'Concert- stuck ' a term which has puzzled many an English amateur such aa Weber's for Piano, or Schumann's for 4 Horns, is merely a 'Concert- piece,' not qui^e a Concerto, but nearly the same. [Gr.]
STUTTERHEIM, JOSEPH, Austrian Field- Marshal-Lieutenant, on whom Beethoven con- ferred the distinguished honour of dedicating his last Quartet (op. 131), was born at Neustadt, in Moravia, 1764, and died at Lemberg, July 21, 1 831. As son of an officer he received a military education, passing through the various grades of the service to that of colonel ; for good conduct at the battle of Aspern was promoted to the rank of major-general, and in 1815 to that above named.
In 1824 he was appointed member of the im- perial council and much employed in the re- organisation of the army. Here Beethoven's friend Stephan von Breuning, Hofrath in the Ministry of War, became favourably known to him, and was thus able to obtain an appointment for Beethoven's nephew, Carl, in the regiment of which Stutterheim was ' Inhaber.' Beethoven, grateful for this kindness, dedicated the quartet to him. [A.W.T.]
STUTTGART CONSERVATORY M. The salient particulars of this well-known school will be found under the head of STARK. Miss ANNA
��MEHLIG (now Mrs. Rudolf Falk) is the only pianoforte player of great eminence whom the Conservatorium can claim to have formed. [G.]
SUBDIAPENTE. A polyglot word, half Latin half Greek, to signify a fifth below, just as 'Epi- diapente' signified a fifth above. A 'Canon in Subdiapente ' was a canon in which the answer was a fifth below the lead. Similarly ' Subdiates- saron ' is a fourth below, and ' Epidiatessaron ' a fourth above. [G.]
SUBDOMINANT. The fourth note of the scale upwards. The note below the dominant, as F in the key of C. The radical bass of the penultimate chord in the Plagal cadence. When groups of movements are balanced together in threes the central one is most frequently in the- key of the subdominant, as in sonatas of three movements, the minuet and trio form, marches, valses, etc. In the actual body of a large move- ment in forms of the sonata order, the key of the subdominant is not antithetically acceptable, and examples of its occurrence in modern music as the key of the second section or second subject are extremely rare, and evidently not well ad- vised. But in dependence on the tonic key it is- one of the most important of harmonic centres, and digressions in that direction are very common in modern music. [C.H.H.P.]
SUBJECT. The theme, or leading idea, on which a musical Composition is based. A piece of Music can no more be composed without a Subject, than a sermon can be preached without a text. Rich Harmonies, and graceful Passages, may be strung together, in any number ; but, if they be not suggested by a leading thought, they will mean nothing. The ' leading thought' is the Subject : and the merit of the Composition based upon that Subject will depend, in the first place, upon the worthiness of the idea, and, in the second, upon the skill with which the Composer discourses upon it.
Subjects may be divided into as many classes as there are classes of Composition : for, every definite Art-form is based upon a Subject in harmony with its own peculiar character.
I. The earliest known form of Subject is the Ecclesiastical Cantus fainus. 1 The most im- portant varieties of this are the Plain Chaunt Melodies of the Antiphon, 9 and those of the Hymn. 3 The former admits of no rhythmic ictus beyond that demanded by the just delivery of the words to which it is set. The latter fell, even in very early times, into a more symmetrical vein, suggested by the symmetry of the Verse, or Prose, cultivated by the great mediaeval Hymnologists, though it was not until the close of the I5th, or beginning of the 1 6th century, that it developed itself, in Germany, into the perfectly rhythmic and metrically regular melody of the Choral. 4
Upon a phrase of this Plain Chaunt, the in- ventors of Harmony discoursed, at will : in other words, they treated it as a Subject. Composera of the nth century discoursed upon it by singing
��i See PLAIN-SONQ. s See HTMN.