of a journey to Russia in 1853, and Spain in 1871. He received the Legion of Honour in 1 86 1. His compositions of which the latest is O p. go are almost all salon pieces, many of them very favourite in their time, graceful and effective, but with no permanent qualities. He has also published a 4-haml arrangement of Beethoven's nine symphonies. Ravina is still living in Paris. The above sketch is indebted to M. Pougin's sup- plement to Fe"tis. [G.] RAWLINGS, or RAWLINS, THOMAS, born about 1703, was a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and a member of Handel's orchestra at both opera and oratorio performances. On March 14, 1753, he was appointed organist of Chelsea Hospital. He died in 1 767. His son, ROBERT, born in 1 742, was a pupil of his father, and afterwards of Bar- santi. At 1 7 he was appointed musical page to the Duke of York, with whom he travelled on the continent until his death in 1767, when he returned to. England and became a violinist in the King's band and Queen's private band. He ied in 1814, leaving a son, THOMAS A., born 1775, who studied music under his father nd Dittenhofer. He composed some instru- ental music performed at the Professional ncerts, became a violinist at the Opera and he best concerts, and a teacher of the pianoforte, .olin and thorough-bass. He composed and ged many pieces for the pianoforte, and songs. [W.H.H.] RAYMOND AND AGNES, a 'grand ro- mantic English Opera in 3 acts'; words by E. Fitzball, music by E. J. Loder. Produced at St. James's Theatre, London, June n, 1859. [G.] RE. The second note of the natural scale in eolmisation and in the nomenclature of France and Italy, as Ut (or Do) is the first, Mi the third, and Fa the fourth
Ut queant laxis resonare fibris J/ira gestorum, famuli tuorum.
By the Germans and English it is called D.
The number of double vibrations per second for D is ; Paris diapason 580-7; London Philharmonic pitch 606' 2. [G.]
REA, WILLIAM, born in London March 25, 1827; when about ten years old learnt the pianoforte and organ from Mr. PITTMAN, for whom he acted as deputy for several years. In about 1843 he was appointed organist to Christ- church, Watney Street, and at the same time studied the pianoforte, composition, and instru mentation under Sterndale Bennett, appearing as a pianist at the concerts of the Society of British Musicians in 1845. On leaving Christ- church he was appointed organist to St. Andrew Undershaft. In 1849 he went to Leipzig, where his masters were Moscheles and Richter ; lie subsequently studied under Dreyschock at Prague. On his return to England, Mr. Rea gave chamber concerts at the Beethoven Rooms, and became (1853) organist to the Harmonic Union. In 1856 he founded the London Polyhymnian Choir, to the training of which he devoted much e, and with excellent results; at the same time
��ae conducted an amateur orchestral society. In 1858 he was appointed organist at St. Michael's, Stock well, and in 1860 was chosen by competition organist to the corporation of Newcastle on Tyne, where he also successively filled the same post at three churches in succession, and at the Elswick Road Chapel. At Newcastle Mr. Rea has worked hard to diffuse a taste for good music, though he has not met with the encouragement which his labours and enthusiasm deserve. Besides weekly organ and pianoforte recitals, he formed a choir of eighty voices, which in 1862 was amalgamated with the existing Sacred Harmonic Society of Newcastle. In 1867 he began a series of excellent orchestral concerts which were carried on every season for nine years, when he was compelled to discontinue them, owing to the pecuniary loss which they entailed. In 1876 he gave two performances of 'Antigone' at the Theatre Royal, and since then has devoted most of his time to training his choir (200 voices), the Newcastle Amateur Vocal Society, and other Societies on the Tyne and in Sunderland, be- sides giving concerts at which the best artists have performed. Mr. Rea's published works com- prise four songs, three organ pieces, and some anthems. At the close of 1880 he was appointed organist of St. Hilda's, S. Shields. [W. B. S.]
READING, JOHN. There were three mu- sicians of these names, all organists. The first was appointed Junior Vicar choral of Lincoln Cathedral, Oct. 10, 1667, Poor Vicar, Nov. 28, 1667, and Master of the Choristers, June 7, 1670. He succeeded Randolph Jewett as organist of Winchester Cathedral in 1675, and retained the office until 168 1, when he was appointed organist of Winchester College. He died in 1692. He was the composer of the Latin Graces sung before and after meat at the annual College election times, and the well-known Winchester School song, Dulce Domum' ; all printed in Dr. Philip Hayes's 'Harmonia Wiccamica.' The second was organist of Chichester Cathedral from 1674 to 1720. Several songs included in collections published between 1681 and 1688 are probably by one or other of these two Readings. The third, born 1677, was a chorister of the Chapel Royal under Dr. Blow. In 1 700 he became organist of Dulwich College. He was appointed Junior Vicar and Poor Clerk of Lincoln Cathedral, Nov. 21, 1702, Master of the Choristers, Oct. 5, 1703, and Instructor of the choristers in vocal music, Sept. 28, 1704. He appears to have resigned these posts in 1707 and to have returned to London, where he became organist of St. John, Hackney, St. Dunstan in the West, St. Mary Woolchurchaw, Lombard Street, and St. Mary Woolnoth. He pub- lished 'A Book o.f New Songs (after the Italian manner) with Symphonies and a Thorough Bass fitted to the Harpsichord, etc.,' and, whilst organist of Hackney, 'A Book of New Anthems.' He was also the reputed composer of the hymn 'Adeste fideles.' He died Sept. 2, 1764.
There was another person named Reading, who was a singer at Drury Lane in the latter part of the I7th century. In June 1695 he and