[6th century ; as in Palestrina's beautiful, though unknown Madrigal, ' Vestiva i colli.' 1
��V* - tl-YlCOl
�� ��Ves - tl - T I ool - It
The subject, in the Hypodorian Mode, here passes directly from the note which, in modern Music, would be the Dominant, to the Final ; while the Answer, in the Dorian Mode, proceeds from the Final to the Authentic Dominant a method of treatment which anticipates the sup- posed invention of Modern Fugue by more than a century. Other instances may occasionally be found, among the works of cinque cento Com- posers as in the Qui tollis of J. L. Hassler's Missa ' Dixit Maria ' 2 but they are very un- and indeed it is only in certain Modes
it they are possible. [W. S. R.]
REAY, SAMUEL, born at Hexham, Mar. 17, $28 ; was noted for his fine voice and careful ig as a chorister at Durham Cathedral; and r Henshaw the organist, and Penson the pre- centor there, became acquainted with much music outside the regular Cathedral services. After leaving the choir he had organ lessons from Mr. Stimpson of Birmingham, and then became suc- cessively organist at St. Andrew's, Newcastle (1845) ; St. Peter's, Tiverton (1847) ; St. John's, Hampstead (1854) 5 St. Saviour's, Southwark (1856) ; St. Stephen's, Paddington ; Radley Col- lege (1859, succeeding Dr. E. G. Monk) ; Bury, Lancashire (1861) ; and in 1864 was appointed 'Song-schoolmaster and organist' of the parish Church, Newark, a post which he still holds. In 1871 Mr. Reay graduated at Oxford as Mus. Bac. In 1879 ne distinguished himself by pro- ducing at the Bromley and Bow Institute, London, two comic cantatas of J. S. Bach's (' Caffee-cantate ' and Bauern-cantate '), which were performed there certainly for the first time in England on Oct. 27, under his direction, to English words of his own adaptation. Mr. Reay is noted as a fine accompanyist and extempore player on the organ. He has published a Morn- ing and Evening Service in F, several anthems, and 2 madrigals (all Novello) ; but is best known a writer of part-songs, some of which (' The
uds that wrap,' ' The dawn of day ') are de- servedly popular. [G.]
REBEC (Ital. Bibeca, Ribeba; Span. Rab<!, Rabel.) The French name (said to be of Arabic origin) of that primitive stringed instrument which was in use throughout western Europe in the middle ages, and was the parent of the viol and violin, and is identical with the German ' geige ' and the English 'fiddle'; in outline something
> Printed, with English words, beginning, 'Sound out my voice,' In N. Yonge's * Musica transalplna ' (Lond. 1568).
a Nuremberg, 1599. Reprinted In vol. i. of Proske's ' Mmlca dlvlna.' Rat isbori 1853.
VOL. III. PT. I.
��like the mandoline, of which it was probably the parent. It was shaped like the half of a pear, and was everywhere solid except atthetwo extremities, the upper of which was formed into a peg-box identical with that still in use, and surmounted by a carved human head. The lower half was considerably cut down in level, thus leaving the upper solid parfr of the instrument to form a natural fingerboard. The portion thus cut down was scooped out, and over the cavity thus formed was glued a short pine belly, pierced with two trefoil -shaped eoundholes, and fitted with a
���bridge and soundpost. The player either rested the curved end of the instrument lightly against the breast, or else held it like the violin, between the chin and the collar-bone, and bowed it like the violin. It had three stout gut strings, tuned like the lower strings of the violin (A, D, G). Its tone was loud and harsh, emulating the female voice, according to a French poem of the i$th century :
Quidam rebecam arcuabant, Muliebrem vocem confingentes.
An old Spanish poem speaks of ' el rabe* gri- tador,' or the ' squalling rebec.' This powerful tone made it useful in the mediaeval orchestra ; and Henry the Eighth employed the rebec in his state band. It was chiefly used, however, to accompany dancing; and Shakspere's musicians in Romeo and Juliet, Hugh Rebeck, Simon Catling (Catgut), and James Soundpost, were undoubtedly rebec-players. After the inven- tion of instruments of the viol and violin type it was banished to the streets of towns and to rustic festivities, whence the epithet ' jocund ' applied to it in Milton's L'Allegro. It was usually accompanied by the drum or tambourine. It was in vulgar use in France in the last cen- tury, as is proved by an ordinance issued by Guignon in his official capacity as ' Roi des Violons' in 1742, in which street-fiddlers are prohibited from using anything else; 'II leur sera permis d'y jouer d'une espece d'instrument a trois cordes seulement, et connu sous le nom