he had an opportunity of carrying out his ideas regarding class-teaching, under more favourable auspices than before. In 1 863 he visited Europe, in order to gain information regarding the methods employed in France, Germany, and Italy in conservatory teaching. He took this oppor- tunity of studying with many eminent masters, amongst others August Haupt, of Berlin. On his return to America he removed to Providence, and established the 'Providence Conservatory of Music,' which had great success. In 1867 he extended his work by founding 'The New England Conservatory of Music,' in Boston, and continued for a time to keep both schools in oper- ation. He drew round him the most eminent teachers in Boston, and placed a good musical education within the reach of the poorest students. In 1869 his executive and organising abilities were made use of by the projectors of the great 'Peace Jubilee,' and there is no doubt that the success of that enterprise was largely due to his efforts. During the same year the degree of Doctor of Music was conferred upon him by Middletown University. Since the foundation of Boston University he has been the highly hon- oured Dean of the College of Music attached thereto. But his greatest work has been the establishment of the great Conservatory just mentioned, from which have graduated thousands of pupils, filling honourable positions as teachers, pianists, organists, and vocalists, and proving themselves able musicians.
Dr. Tourjee has not accumulated wealth, for the needs of others have always been more promi- nent with him than his own. Many are the charitable enterprises in which he has been active, and the persons who have been aided by his bounty. Among the positions which he has filled may be named that of President of the Boston Young Men's Christian Association,' 'City Missionary Society,' and ' National Music Teachers' Associ- ation.' He is ever genial in manner, and untiring in work. He is at present in robust health, and it is to be hoped that his useful life may be spared for long. [G.]
TOURS, BERTHOLD, born Dec. 17, 1838, at Rotterdam. His early instruction was derived from his father, who was organist of the St. Laurence church, and from Verhulst. He after- wards studied at the Conservatoires of Brussels and Leipzig, and then accqmpanied Prince George Galitzin to Russia, and remained there for two years. Since 1861 he has resided in London, writing, teaching, and playing in the band of the Royal Italian Opera, and other good orchestras. In 1878 he became musical adviser and editor to Messrs. Novello, Ewer, & Co., and in that capacity has arranged several im- portant works from the orchestral scores, such as Beethoven's Mass in C, four of Schubert's Masses, 'Elijah,' Gounod's 'Redemption,' etc. etc., besides writing the ' Primer of the Violin ' in the series of that firm. Mr. Tours's composi- tions are numerous. He has written for the piano and other instruments, and a large number of songs, some of which have been very popular.
��But his best work is to be found in his Hymn- tunes, Antfcems, and Services, for the Anglican hurch, particularly a Service in F and an Easter Anthem, 'God hath appointed a day/ which are greatly in demand. [G.]
TOURTE, FRANCIS, the most famous of vio- in-bow-makers, born in Paris 1747, died there 1835. His father and elder brother were bow- makers also ; and the reputation which attaches bo the family name is not due to Fra^ois alone. Xavier Tourte, the elder brother, known in France as 'Tourte 1'aine, ' was also an excellent workman: tradition says that the brothers commenced busi- ness in partnership, Fra^ois making the sticks, and Xavier the nuts and fittings. They quarrelled and dissolved partnership, and each then set up for himself, Xavier reproducing as well as he could the improvements in the stick which had been introduced by Franfois. The latter has been denominated the Stradivari of the bow : and there is some truth in this; for as Stradivari finally settled the model and fittings of the violin, so Tourte finally settled the model and fittings of the bow. But he had more to do for the bow than Stradivari for the fiddle. The Cremona makers before Stradivari hud nearly perfected the model of the violin : it only re- mained for him to give it certain finishing touches. But Tourte, properly speaking, had no predecessors. He found bow-making in a state of chaos, and he reduced it to a science ; and he may be said to have invented the modern bow. Perhaps the best idea of the bows which were in use in Tourte's youth may be gained from the accompanying illustration, which is copied from the first edition of Leopold Mozart's 'Violin School,' 1756. (Fig. I.) For this fearful imple-
���ment Tourte substituted the bow now in use. (Fig. 2.) The service which he thus rendered to music appears greater the more we think of it : for the Tourte bow greatly facilitated the new development of violin music which began with Viotti, Rode, and Kreutzer. Before bis time