Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/181

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On this point an almost complete analogy may be found in the case of painting, engraving, and chromo-lithographs. The piano may be said to give the engraving of an orchestral work, the organ the chromo-lithograph with all its defects of hard outline and want of delicate shading. There can be no doubt that this treatment of the organ has had a mischievous effect upon organ building, organ music, and organ playing.

The employment of the organ wit h the orchestra is not without its dangers, but the main principles are clear. Never use imitation stops or mixtures and hardly ever 4-ft. or 2 -ft. work. The Diapasons and the pedal stops are the only effects which can be used without clash and harshness. A pedal alone has often a wonderfully fine effect. Instances in Mendelssohn's organ parts (which are models) will readily occur. There is a long D at the end of the first chorus of Sullivan's 'Martyr of Antioch,' again another in Brahms's Requiem, at the end of No. 3, where the pedal may be introduced with the happiest results. [See REGISTRATION, vol. iii. p. 94.] [W.Pa.]

TREBELLI, ZELIA, an operatic singer who took the public by storm, and stepped into the high position which she maintains to the present day.

Zelia Gilbert 1 was born in Paris in 1838. So early was her talent recognised that she was taught the piano at the age of six. Guided by her Ger- man teacher, she learnt to reverence and enjoy the works of Bach and Beethoven. After ten years her wish for instruction in singing was encouraged by her parents, who only thought thereby to add one other graceful accomplish- ment to those which were to render their daughter useful and acceptable in society. The services of Herr Wartel were secured, and so delighted was he with his clever pupil that he never rested until he had persuaded her parents to allow of his training her for the lyric stage. Five years of close study prepared for her debut, which was made at Madrid as Mile. Trebelli, under the most favourable circumstances and with complete success, Mario playing Almaviva to her Rosina, in 'II Barbiere.'

Trebelli's appearances in the opera-houses of Germany were a series of brilliant triumphs. Public and critics were alike carried away by enthusiasm when they heard her rendering of the parts of Rosina, Arsace, Orsini, Urbano, Azucena and others. No member of Merelli's Italian troupe was gifted with so brilliant a voice and so much executive power. Nor could the audiences fail to be impressed by the ac- tress's varied powers so rarely at the command of one individual, Trebelli expressing at one timo the fire of an almost manly vigour, and at another the charm of womanly tenderness and delicacy. The German criticisms which declared the voice a contralto, comparing it with Alboni's in quality and with Schechner's in power, were not supported by English opinions. As a mezzo-soprano, its brilliancy, power and flexibility were appreciatively no- ticed ; the artist's control over voice and action

J Trebelli ' is obviously intended as the reverse of Gillebert.



��enthusiastically praised. Trebelli appeared first in London at her Majesty's Theatre, May gth, 1862, as Orsini in 'Lucrezia.' 'A more encour- aging reception has seldom been awarded to a debutante.' Since then, she has been a recog- nised favourite with our opera and concert audiences. Those who have long been familiar with her appearances in frequent co-operation with Mdlle. Titiens in the chief Italian operas, will not easily forget the performances of Oberon, where Trebelli's impersonation of the captive, Fatima, was invested with peculiar charm. More recent and more widely known is her rendering of the very opposite character of the heroine in ' Carmen.'

At the present time (1884) Madame Trebelli is making a tour through the United States with Mr. Abbey's troupe.

Madame Trebelli's marriage to Signor Bet- tini, about 1863, was, in a few years, followed by a separation. [L.M.M.]

TREBLE (Canto; Distant; Dessus). A general term applied to the highest voices in a chorus or other concerted vocal piece, and to the upper parts in concerted instrumental music; also to soprano voices generally. The treble clef is the G clef on the second line of the upper (our treble) stave ; the eighth line of the great stave of eleven lines (Chiave di sol, cliiave di violino ; Clef de Sol).

Its etymology does not refer it to any special class of voice. It has been said to be a corrup- tion of Triplum, a third part superadded to the Altus and Bassus (high and low). In this case it will have been sung by boys, who till then will have joined instinctively in congregational singing in unison with, or an octave above, the tenor. Another derivation is Thurible, the vessel in which incense is burnt in the services of the Roman Catholic Church, from the Latin Thuri- bulum. The portable thurible . or censer was carried and swung by boys. But there is very strong doubt whether the thurible boys ever had any share in the vocal part of the church services ; and if they did not, this theory is overturned. The thurible-bearers would surely be called, in de- scribing a religious procession, ' the thurifers.' The derivation from Triplum seems therefore the more probable. At what time ' treble' may have found its way into English it is difficult to say. * Childish treble/ as the voice of old age, appears in Shakspeare, and 'faint treble' used to be applied to what is commonly known as falsetto. English amateur pianists frequently call the right hand the treble hand. The word Triplum as a third part was of course introduced at a very early date, and marks a most injport- ant step in the progress of part-music.

The treble clef is a modification of the 'letter ^. [CLEF.] It is used for the violin, flute, hautboy, clarinet, horn, and trumpet ; also in very high passages on the viola, violon- cello, and bassoon. The double G clef has ((b(3) been used for tenor parts in choruses, the *J- ** music being sung an octave lower than written ; also for the horn in low keys. [TENOR.] [H.C.D.]

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