��TREITSCHKE, GEORG FRIEDRICH, author and entomologist, deserves a place in a Dictionary of Music, as the adapter of Joseph Sonnleithner's libretto for Beethoven's 'Fidelio,' for its revival in 1814. He was born at Leipzig, Aug. 29, 1776, died at Vienna, June 4, 1842. In 1793 his father sent him for further education to Switzer- land, and there he became acquainted with Gessner of Zurich, who inspired him with a love of literature. In 1802 he went to Vienna, and fell in with Baron Braun who made him manager and librettist of the Court theatre, of which he him3elf was director. In 1 809 he became vice- director of the theatre an-der-Wien, but in 1814 returned to his former post. In 1822 the whole of the financial arrangements of the Court theatre were placed in his hands, and remained there till his death. He adapted a host of French librettos (Cherubini's ' Deux Journe'es,' ' Me"de"e,' 'Aline,' etc.) for the German stage, not always, it must be owned, with the skill shown in ' Fi- delio.' His connexion with Beethoven was con- siderable. Besides the revision of ' Fidelio' in 1813-14, a letter of Beethoven to him, dated June 6, 1811, seems to speak of a proposed opera book ; another, of July 3, of a melodrama. Beethoven supplied music to a chorus of his, ' Germania,' a propos to the Fall of Paris (March 31, 1814), and to another chorus, Es ist voll- bracht,' celebrating the entry of the Allies into Paris, July 15, 1815. Treitschke made a col- lection of 2,582 species of butterflies, now in the National Museum in Pesth, and was the author of several books on entomology. His first wife,
MAGDALENE, ne'e de Caro, a celebrated dancer born at Civita Vecchia, April 25, 1788, died at Vienna, Aug. 24, 1816 was brought up in London and Dublin, and became thoroughly English. Introduced on the stage by Noverre, her grace and charm created a perfect furore. She afterwards studied under Duport, made several tours, and on her return to London appeared with Vestris in the ' Caliph of Bagdad.' There in 1815 she closed her artistic career, went back to her husband in Vienna, died, and was buried near Haydn's grave. [F.G.]
TREMOLO. A figure consisting, in the case of bowed instruments, of reiterated notes played as rapidly as possible with up and down bow, expressed thus with the word tremolo or tremolando added (without which the passage would be played according to the rhythmical value of the notes), producing a very fine effect, if ju- diciously used, both in fortissimo and pianissimo passages. On the pianoforte it is a rapid alter- nation of the parts of divided chords, repro- ducing to a great extent the above-mentioned effect. Good examples of Tremolo are to be found in various branches of music for the Piano in the Introduction to Weber's Solo Sonata in Ab, and in the Finale to Schubert's Rhapsodie Hongroise, where it gives the effect of the cym- balum or zither in the Hungarian bands; for
l Unless this refers to Fidelio.
the Piano and Violin, in the Introduction to Schubert's Phantasie in C (op. 159) ; for the Orchestra, in Weber's Overtures, and Schubert's Overture to Fierabras. For the PF. and Voice a good example is Schubert's song ' Am Meer.' Bee- thoven uses it in the Funeral March of the Solo Sonata, op. 26 ; in the Sonata Appassionata, and that in C minor, op. 1 1 1 . The strictly classical PF. writers evidently did not consider tremolo without rhythm legitimate in original piano words another example (if such were needed) of the purity with which they wrote. The tre- molo on the PF. is therefore a reproduction of the effect of other instruments, as in Beethoven's Funeral March just mentioned. This, though written rhythmically, is, by common consent, played as a real tremolo, being clearly a repre- sentation of the roll of muffled drums. Some of the best of the Romantic school, as Weber and Schumann, have used the real Tremolo. Bee- thoven ends a droll note to Steiner 3 on the dedication of the Sonata, op. 1 06, as follows :
ad amicum de amico.
��*> O Ad - ju - tantl
2. In vocal music the term is applied to the abuse of a means of expression or effect, legitimate if used only at the right time and place, and in the right way. It assumed the character of a vocal vice about forty years ago, and is supposed to have had its origin in the vibrato of Rubini, first assuming formidable proportions in France, and thence quickly spreading throughout the musical world.
TheVibrato and the Tremolo are almost equally reprehensible as mannerisms. Mannerisms ex- press nothing but carelessness or self-sufficiency, and the constant tremolo and vibrato are there- fore nauseous in the extreme. Their constant use as a means of expression is simply false, for if they are to represent a moral or physical state, it is that of extreme weakness or of a nervous agitation which must soon wear out the un- fortunate victim of its influence. The tremolo is said to be frequently the result of forcing the voice. It may be so in some cases, but it is almost exclusively an acquired habit in this age of 'intensity.' It is a great mistake to say that it is never to be used, but it must only be so when the dramatic situation actually warrants or requires it. If its use is to be banished en- tirely from vocal music, then it should equally disappear from instrumental music, though, by the way, the instrumental tremolo is more nearly allied to the vocal vibrato. Indeed, what is called 4 vibrato ' on bowed instruments is what would be ' tremolo ' in vocal music. [VIBRATO.] What is it that produces its fine effect in instrumental music ? In loud passages it expresses sometimes joy and exultation ; in others, agitation or ter- ror ; in all cases, tension or emotion of some 2 See Thayer. til. 501.