which is perhaps the first mention of a society of professional musicians.
A farther development of the two types above named involved the means of bridging over the harmonic gaps. For this purpose the slide was obviously the first in date. [See TROMBONE.] Its application to the Trumpet itself came later, from the reason named above, that in its upper part the harmonic series closes in upon itself so that at a certain point the open notes become all but consecutive and form a natural scale. This can be accomplished by a good lip, un- assisted by mechanism, and is probably one of the reasons why Bach, Handel, and the older musicians write such extremely high parts for the instrument. 1 The Bugle type, on the other hand, developed early into hand-stopped side holes, as in the Serpent, followed by the same, key-stopped in the Key-Bugle, keyed Serpent, and the identical instrument with the mongrel Greek appellation of Ophicleide. Considerably later the prodigious brood of Valve or 'Ventil' con- trivances allied itself to the Bugles with fair success. On the Trumpet 2 and Trombones they are a complete failure, as they obscure the upper harmonics, the main source of the characteristic tone.
In the following description of the modern Trumpet the writer has been materially assisted by an excellent monograph published by Breit- kopf & Hartel of Leipzig in 1881, and named Die Trompete in Alter und neuer Zeit, von Hermann Eichborn.' In acknowledging his obligations to the work he can heartily advise its study by those who wish for more detail than can be given in a dictionary.
The simple or Field Trumpet is merely a tube twice bent on itself, ending in a bell. Hence its Italian name Tromba doppia. The modern orchestral or slide Trumpet, according to the description of our greatest living player, 3 is made of brass, mixed metal, or silver, the two latter materials being generally preferred. It consists of a tube sixty-six inches and three quarters in length, and three eighths of an inch in
��diameter. It is twice turned or curved, thus forming three lengths ; the first and third lying close together, and the second about two inches apart. The last fifteen inches form a bell. The slide is connected with the second curve. It is a double tube five inches in length on each side,
1 A Trumpet capable of producing the high notes In Bach's Trumpet pans has been made in Berlin, and was used in the performance of the B minor Mass under Joachim at the unveiling of the statue at Eisenach in Sept. 1884.
2 In the Monatshette far Musik-Gesch. for 1881, No. III. Is a long and Interesting article by Kitner, investigating the facts as to the Inventor of the ' Ventil trompete,' which is said to date from 1802 or JSOo. The writer seems however to confuse entirely the key-system or ' Klappen T^ompete ' with the ventil or valve. Valves render the harmonic system of the Trumpet entirely false, besides deadening its tone Eitner's error is exposed in the preface to Kichborn's ' Die
a Harper's School for the Trumpet. Eudall. Carte * Co.
��by which the length of the whole instrument can be extended. It is worked from the centre by the second and third fingers of the right hand, and after being -pulled back is drawn forward to its original position by a spring fixed in a small tube occupying the centre of the instrument. There are five additional pieces called crooks, a tuning bit, and the mouthpiece.
The first crook and mouthpiece increase the length of the whole tube to 72 inches, and give the key of F. The second gives E, the third, Eb, the fourth, D. The fifth or largest crook in general use is 25! inches long, making the total length of the instrument 96 inches, and giving the key of C. A Db, Bt|, and Bb crook may be used, but are not often required. The mouthpiece is turned from solid brass or silver, and its exact shape is of greater importance than is generally supposed. The cup is hemispherical, the rim not less than an eighth of an inch in breadth, level in surface, with slightly rounded edges. The diameter of the cup differs with the individual player and the pitch of the notes required. It should be somewhat less for the high parts of the older scores.
The natural notes begin with 8-foot C, which
is not used, and follow the harmonic series, up to
-&~ the C above the soprano
fijfr ^ I ~ clef. Pedal notes seem
^' | ^~ ' to be unknown on the
rgt *> Trumpet.*
Practically the useful compass begins with the Clarinet E and ends with the G in alt.
The Natural notes of the Trumpet
��Scale of the Slide Trumpet. (Harper).
��The slide is used (i) To bring the F and A of the fourth octave into tune. (2) To produce a semitone below the natural note. (3) To lower the pitch a whole tone. (4) To correct the seventh or natural harmonic, at all times too flat for tempered harmony. For the first purpose it is drawn back about an inch and a half. For the second about halfway, or 2^ inches in keys above D; and two-thirds, or rather over 3 inches, in keys lower than D. For
4 Eichborn names ' Das kontra Register ' or ' Posaunen Eegister," but says ' es spricht sehr schwer an.'