��May 17, 1855 ; in English, 'The Gipsy's Ven- geance,' Drury Lane, March 24, 1856. [G.] TROYENS, LES. A 'lyric poem,' words and music by Berlioz ; originally forming one long opera, but afterwards divided into two (i) 'La prise de Troie '; (a) 'Les Troyens a Carthage.' No. I was never performed, and is still in MS. No. 2 was produced at the Theatre Lyrique, Nov. 4, 1863, and published in PF. score by Choudens. See Berlioz's ' Memoires,' Postface (Transl. vol. ii. Supplement). [G.]
TROYERS, FERDINAND, COUNT VON, Imperial councillor, and chief officer of the household to the Cardinal Archduke Rudolph (Beethoven's pupil), was an amateur clarinet player, and dis- tinguished pupil of Friedlowsky (Professor at the Conservator! um from 1821 to 47). He is men- tioned as one of the executants at a Gesellschaft concert in 1816. Troyers is stated, on the autho- rity of Doppler (manager for Diabelli & Co.) to have given Schubert the commission for his well- known Octet, op. 1 66, composed in 1824. [See vol. iii. p. 339&. 1 ] [C.F.P.]
TROYTE, ABTHUB HENRY DYKE, second son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., of Killerton, Devon, born May 3, 1811, graduated at Christ- church, Oxford, 1 8 32 .assumed the name of Troy te in 1852, and died June 19, i857, 2 was *he author of two favourite Chants, known as Troyte No. i and Troyte No. 2, much used as hymn tunes. The latter however is a mere modification of a chant by Dr. W. Hayes. [G.]
TRUHN, FRIEDRICH HIERONYMUS, born at Elbing, Oct. 14, 1811, became scholar of Klein and Dehn, and also had a few lessons from Mendelssohn. Has lived chiefly in Berlin and Dantzig, but with many intervals of travelling. One of his tours was made with Billow. His opera 'Trilby 1 was produced in Berlin, 1835; but he is chiefly known by his songs amongst them 'The Three Chafers.' He also contributes to the 'Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik,' and the 4 Neue Berliner Musikzeitung.' [G.]
TRUMPET (Fr. Trompette; Ger. Trompete, Trttmmet, Tarantara ; Ital. Tromba, Tr. doppia, Clttrino). It is unnecessary to seek for the origin of an instrument which was already fa- miliar when the Mosaic books were written; at Jericho performed one of the earliest miracles ; figured in the Hebrew ritual; preluded to the battles around Troy; is carved on the stone chronicles of Nineveh and Egypt ; and for which China claims, in the form of the ' Golden Horn ' a far greater antiquity than these.
If, instead of following the vertical ordinate history, we move along the horizontal line of ethnology, we find its gradual development from the shell, the cow, buffalo or ram's horn through the root 3 hollowed by fire, to the
i Where the name 1 wrongly spelt as Troyer.
From the excellent ' Biographical Index ' to the ' Church Hymnal ' (Dublin. 1878) by Major Crawford.
3 A good example of this, with a cupped mouthpiece scooped In the wood, which could be played on, was shown at the Loan Exhibition of Scientific Instruments by Mr. Bassett, from Africa.
wooden Alpenhorn bound with birch bark ; thence to the Zinckes and Cornets of ancient Germany, up to the Tuba and Lituus of Rome. Both of these, which were real Trumpets, Rome borrowed, inherited, or stole; the former from Etruscan, the latter from Oscan, originals. One of the Etruscan Tubas in the British Museum has a mouthpiece perfectly characteristic, and capable of being played on ; two spare mouthpieces stand- ing beside it as perfect as though just turned.
In the typical shapes above named we have evidence of an early subdivision into two forms of the sounding tube which has now become fruitful of musical results. For whereas the large-bored conical TUBA still keeps its name, and is the mother of Bugles, Serpents, Horns, Cornets a piston, Euphoniums, Bombardons and the like ; the Lituus, which Forcellini derives from the Greek \tros, tenuis, is the small -bored cylindrical Trumpet, and the father of all Trombones. It was early seen that two distinct varieties of tone quality could thus be obtained ; the large cone and bell favouring the production of the fundamental note and the lower partial tones ; whereas the long contracted pipe broke easily into harmonics, and spoke freely in its upper octaves. Hence the Orches- tral Trumpet, as now used, is really an 8-foot pipe overblown, like a Harmonic stop on the Organ ; to this it owes its keenness, pungency, power of travelling, and its marvellous superiority in timbre over the 4-foot Cornet.
That the distinction between the Roman Tuba and Lituus is real, needs for proof no more scholarship than is contained in Horace's First Ode to Maecenas :
Multos castra juvant, et lituo tub Permixtus somtus.
On this passage Forcellini comments, ' Sunt qui lituum a tuba distinguunt, ex eo quod ille equitum sit, haec vero peditum.' The distinction is good to-day. The Tuba was the 'Infantry Bugle'; the Lituus the 'Cavalry Trumpet.'
The derivation of lituus may indeed be originally Greek ; certainly it is proximately from the hooked augur's staif of the Oscans, which had been Mercury's wand, and has become the bishop's crozier. Cicero sets the etymology hind- side foremost. 'Bacillum,' he says of the staff, ' quod ab ejus litui quo canitur similitudine nomen invenit.' It might as well be said that the horse was made with four legs and a round body to fit the forked shafts of the cart.
Both Tuba and Lituus figure on Trajan's column, in the triumphal procession. Vegetius defines the former: 'Tuba quse directa est, appellatur.' This straight form reappears even in more recent times, as in a fine picture by Baltazarini; by comparing it with the average height of the players, it may be estimated at about seven feet long. The Lituus is figured by Bartolini from a marble Roman tombstone with the inscription
M. JULIUS VICTOR
ex collegio Liticinuui Cornicinwm.