��faint to count by. The tuner also finds difficulty in tuning the treble of a piano by beats only.
Still, to tune the groundwork of a piano to a carefully measured set of chromatic tuning- forks, such as Scheibler formerly provided, would ensure a nearer approach to a perfect equal temperament than the existing system of fourths and fifths, with the slight flattening upwards of fifths and downwards of fourths, to bring all within the perfect octave. But to achieve this, a normal pitch admitting of no variation is a sine qud non, because no tuner would or could give the time to work by a set of forks making beats with the pitch wanted.
The wind and fretted stringed instruments, although seemingly of fixed tones, are yet capa- ble of modification by the player, and their exact scale relation cannot be defined without him. In Asiatic countries, as India, Persia, and Arabia, and sometimes in European, this play of interval is used as a melodic grace, and from the ancient Greeks to the present day, the quarter-tone has been a recognised means of expression. Georges Sand, writing in her de- lightful novel 'La Mare au Diable' about the Musette (a kind of Bagpipe) of her country people, says ' La note finale de chaque phrase, tenue et tremblde avec une longueur et une puissance d'haleine incroyable, monte d'un quart de ton en faussant syste'matiquement.' Whitley Stokes (Life of Dr. Petrie, p. 339) has noticed such a licence in his native Irish music. But we are led away here from Har- monic Scales. [A.J.H.]
TUNING-FORK (Fr. Diapason ; Ital. Corista; Germ. Stimmgabd). This familiar and valuable pitch-carrier was invented by John Shore, Handel's famous Trumpeter. From a musical instrument it has become a philosophical one, chiefly from its great permanence in retaining a pitch ; since it is flattened by heat and sharpened by cold to an amount which is determinable for any particular observations. A fork is tuned by filing the ends of the prongs to sharpen, and between them at the base, to flatten ; and after this it should stand for some weeks and be tested again, owing to the fact that filing disturbs the molecular structure. Rust affects a fork but very little : the effect being to slightly flatten it. Tuning-forks have been used to construct a key- board instrument, but the paucity of harmonic upper partial tones causes a monotonous quality of tone. An account of the combination of tuning-forks into a Tonometer for the accurate measurement of pitch will be found under SCHEIBLER, the inventor. [A.J.H.]
TURANDOT is a 5-act play of Schiller's, founded on a Chinese subject, orchestral music to which was composed by Weber in 1809. His music consists of an Overture and 6 numbers, 3 of them marches, all more or less founded on a Chinese melody, which Weber took from Rousseau's Dictionary of Music (vol. ii. plate N), and which opens the overture exactly as Rous- seau gives it.
��The Overture was originally composed as an 4 Overtura Chinesa ' in 1 806, and afterwards re- vised. The first performance of the Overture in its present shape was at Strassburg, Dec. 31, 1814. It is doubtful if the rest has ever been performed. The play has been also treated by Blumenroeder, Reissiger, and Hoven. It has been 4 freely translated' into English by Sabilla Novello (1872). [G.]
TURCA, ALLA, i. e. in Turkish style; the accepted meaning of which is a spirited simple melody, with a lively accentuated accompaniment. The two best examples of this are the finale to Mozart's PF. Sonata in A (Kochel, 331), which is inscribed by the composer ' Alia Turca,' and the theme of Beethoven's variations in D (op. 76), which he afterwards took for the ' Marcia alia Turca,' which follows the Dervish chorus in the 4 Ruins of Athens.' [G.]
TURCO IN ITALIA, IL. Opera by Rossini. Produced at the Scala at Milan, Aug. 14, 1814 ; in London at His Majesty's, May 19, 1820. [G.j
TURINI, FBANCESCO, learned contrapuntist, born at Prague, 1590, died at Brescia, 1656, son of Gregorio Turini, cornet-player to the Emperor Rudolph II, and author of 'Teutscbe Lieder' a 4, in imitation of the Italian Villanelli (Frank- fort, 1610). His father dying early, the Emperor took up the young Francesco, had him trained in Venice and Rome, and made him his chamber- organist. Later he became organist of the ca- thedral at Brescia. He published ' Misse a 4 e 5 voci a Capella,' op. I (Gardano) ; 4 Mottetti a voce sola,' for all four kinds of voices ; 4 Madri- gali a i, 2, 03, con senate a 2 03'; and 4 Motetti commodi.' A canon of his is quoted by Burney, the theme of which
��Chris -to e la --!. son, etc.
was a favourite with Handel, who employs it in his Organ Fugue in Bb, and in his Oboe Con- certo, No. 2, in the same key. It had been previously borrowed by Thomas Morley, who begins his canzonet, 4 Cruel, you pull away too soon your dainty lips,' with the same theme. It is probably founded on the old ecclesiastical phrase with which Palestrina begins his 4 Tu es Petrus,' and which was employed by Bach in his well-known Pedal Fugue in Eb, and by Dr. Croft in his Psalm-tune, ' St. Anne's.' [F.G-] TURK, a dog, who by his connexion with a great singer and a still greater composer, has attained nearly the rank of a person. He be-