vatoire. After gaining the first prize there, at 15, he went to Paris, made the acquaintance of Rossini, and was much applauded. He then began a lengthened tour through Belgium, Hol- land, Denmark, Sweden, South Germany, Switzer- land, etc., in which his programmes embraced both classical and modern pieces. Two, on which he gained great fame, were cello arrangements of the violin concertos of Beethoven and Men- delssohn. In 1865 he took a post as leader at Diisseldorf, then in the Court band at Weimar, and next at Berlin. He did not however retain the last of these long, but gave it up for concert tours, which have since occupied him. In the intervals of these he has resided at Wiesbaden and Leipzig. His first opera, ' Die Albigenser,' was produced at Wiesbaden in 1878, with much success. A second, 'Die Grafen von Hammer- stein,' is announced for publication. De Swert has a Primer for the Cello in preparation for Messrs. Novello. He visited England in the spring of 1875, an( ^ appeared at the Crystal Palace on April 24. [G.]
SWIETEN, GOTTFRIED, BARON VAN. A musical amateur of great importance, who resided at Vienna at the end of last century and beginning of this one. The family was Flemish, and Gott- fried's father, Gerhard, 1 returned from Leyden to Vienna in 1745, and became Maria Theresa's favourite physician. Gottfried was born in 1734, and was brought up to diplomacy, but his studies were much disturbed by his love of music, and in 1769 he committed himself so far as to com- pose several of the songs in Favart's ' Rosiere de Salency ' for its public production at Paris. In 1771 he was made ambassador to the Court of Prussia, where the music was entirely under the influence of Frederick the Great, conservative and classical. This suited Van Swieten. Handel, the Bachs, and Haydn were his favourite masters ; in 1774 he commissioned C. P. E. Bach to write six symphonies for orchestra. He returned to Vienna in 1778 ; succeeded his father as Prefect of the Public Library, and in 1781 was appointed President of the Education Commission. He became a kind of musical autocrat in Vienna, and in some respects his influence was very good. He encouraged the music which he ap- proved ; had regular Sunday-morning meetings for classical music, as well as performances of the great choral works of Bach, Handel, and Hasse, etc. ; employed Mozart to add accompani- ments to Handel's Acis,' ' Messiah,' St. Ce- cilia,' and ' Alexander's Feast,' and Starzer to do the same for 'Judas'; translated the words of the 'Creation' and the 'Seasons' into German for Haydn; and himself arranged Handel's 'Atha- liah ' and ' Choice of Hercules.' He supplied Haydn now and then with a few ducats, and gave him a travelling-carriage for his second journey to England. 2 In his relation to these great artists he seems never to have forgotten the superiority of his rank to theirs ; but this was the manner of the time. Van Swieten patron-
i Evidently not a very wise person. See Carlyle's ' Friedrich,' Bk. Mi. cb. & * Griesinger, Biog. Not. 66.
ised Beethoven also [see vol. i. p. 1760] ; but such condescension would not be at all to Bee- thoven's taste, and it is not surprising that we hear very little of it. His first Symphony is, however, dedicated to Van Swieten. He was the founder of the ' Musikalischen Gesellschaft,' or Musical Society, consisting of 25 members of the highest aristocracy, with the avowed object of creating a taste for good music a forerunner of the ' Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde,' founded in 1808.
Van Swieten died at Vienna March 29, 1803. His music has not survived him, but it would be interesting to hear one of the six symphonies which, in Haydn's words, 3 were ' as stiff as him- self.' [G.]
SWINNERTON HEAP, CHARLES, was born at Birmingham in 1847, an( ^ educated at the Grammar School of that town. Displaying at a very early age an aptitude for music, on leaving school he was articled to Dr. Monk at York, where he remained for two years. In 1865 he gained the Mendelssohn Scholarship, and was sent to Leipzig for two-and-a-half years, studying under Moscheles and Reinecke. On his return he became a pupil of Mr. Best at Liverpool, and since 1868 has devoted himself to professional duties in Birmingham, at the classical concerts of which town he has constantly appeared as a pianist, and in which district he is widely known as a conductor. In 1870 he wrote an exercise for the Cambridge Degree of Mus. Bac., which produced so favourable an impression upon the Professor of Music (Sir Sterndale Bennett) that he offered to accept the work (the ist part of an oratorio 'The Captivity') as an exercise for the Mus. Doc. degree. Mr. Swinnerton Heap ac- cordingly set the 3rd Psalm for the Mus. Bac. exercise, and in the following year proceeded to the degree of Mus. Doc. His principal works are a pianoforte trio (performed at Leipzig), a sonata for clarinet and piano, a quintet for pianoforte and wind instruments, two overtures (one produced at the Birmingham Festival of 1879 and afterwards played at the Crystal Palace Concerts), a 'Salvum fac Regem' (performed at Leipzig), a short cantata, 'The Voice of Spring,' and numerous anthems, songs, and organ pieces. [W.B.S.]
SWINY, OWEN, frequently called Mac Swiny, 'a gentleman born in * Ireland.' In a letter, 5 dated Oct. 5, 1706, and addressed to Colley
��Gibber, whom he calls in turn 'puppy,
illy * :
��Angel' (twice), 'his Dear,' and finally 'Unbe- liever,' this singular person describes how Rich had sent for him from his ' Quarters in the North,' and how ' he was at a great charge in coming to town, and it cost him a great deal of money last winter,' and ' he served him night and day, nay, all night and all day, for nine months.' He had 'quitted his post in the army' on the faith of promises that, in return for managing ' the playhouse in the Haymarkett ' under Rich,
��* Griesinger, Biog. Not. 87. lu the writer's possession.