Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/352

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��'Erinnerung an eine Freundin,' which is re- printed in his 'Ges. Schriften,' and contains some charming extracts from her journal, giving a high idea of the range of her knowledge and the depth of her sensibility.

See Jansen's ' Davids buudler' a very interest- ing book (Breitkopf & Hartel, 1883). [G.]

VOIX CELESTES, VOX CCELESTIS, VOX ANGELICA, UNDA MARIS. An organ stop with two ranks of pipes, one tuned about three beats a second sharper than the other. The pipes are sometimes of the Dulciana type ; some- times (generally in the case of French organ- builders) two small Gambas. and occasionally the ranks are dissimilar, one a Keraulophon, and one a Dulciana. The custom is to tune one rank with the organ and one sharper, but this has the effect of making the organ sound disagree- ably flat after using the stop, and the plan ad- vocated by Mr. Sedley Taylor of tuning one rank slightly above and one below the general pitch of the organ is no doubt preferable, though it pre- cludes the use of either alone, or in combination with the other stops. The Voix Celestes has its proper place in the swell organ, and in large build- ings its wavy floating effect is not unpleasing. Like other 'fancy' stops it should be used with reserve. The name Vox Angelica is ambiguous, some builders make it a synonym for Voix Ce*- lestes, and others for the rank of pipes which is tuned to the rest of the organ. [W.Pa.]

VOLKMANN,FRIEDRICH RoBERT,born April 6, 1815, at Lommatsch in Saxony. His father, cantor and schoolmaster of the town, taught the boy music, with such effect that by the time he was twelve he took the services in church. He then had instruction from Friebel, the 'Town musician,' in violin and cello, and from Anacker, music - director of the Seminary at Freyberg. In 1836 he went to Leipzig, to study systematically, and made the acquaintance of C. F. Becker, and also of Schumann, who exercised great influence on him ; in 1839 ^ e published his first work, 'Phantasiebilder in Leipzig.' His next step was to visit Prague and enter on the career of teacher and composer. From 1854 to 1858 he resided at Vienna, but ended by taking up his permanent quarters in Pesth, where his principal. works have been com- posed. These comprise 2 Symphonies, in D minor (op. 44), and Bb (op. 53), a Festival overture in F 1 (op. 50), 2 Serenades for Strings, ops. 62, 63 ; Concertos for Cello in A minor (op. 33), and PF. in C (op. 42); 2 PF. trios in F (op. 3), and Bb minor (op. 5) ; String Quartets in A minor and G minor (op. 9), in G major (op. 14), in E minor (op. 34), in C minor (op. 35), and in Eb (op. 37), and many works for piano, both 4 hands and solo. His vocal compositions are also nu- merous: 2 Masses for male voices (op. 28, 29) ; 3 sacred songs for mixed choir (op. 38) ; old German hymn for 2 choirs of male voices (op. 64) ; ' Sappho,' dramatic scene for soprano solo

> Flayed at Crystal Falace, Oct. 3. 1MB.


and orchestra (op. 49) ; ' An die Nacht,* for alto solo and orchestra ; songs for solo voice and piano, etc. The overture to his 'Music to Shakespeare's Richard the Third' (op. 73), was performed at the Crystal Palace Oct. 30, 1875 the Scotch air "The Campbells are coming' being introduced as 'an old English war-song.' A later composition is a ' Schlummerlied ' for harp, clarinet and horn, which is mentioned as op. 76 in Hofmeister's List for 1883.

As a pianoforte composer Volkmann belongs to the romantic school. His compositions often bear fanciful titles, but they are poetical, and moreover so strongly marked with Hungarian characteristics that he may truly be snid to have borrowed colour, rhythm, and embellishments from his adopted home. His two Symphonies, his Quartets in G minor and A minor, his PF. Trio in Bb minor, have been acknowledged in high terms by critics in Germany. His Cello Concerto is also a favourite and excellent work. In England he is little known, though his G minor Quartet has been given at the Monday Popular Concerts, and his two Overtures at the Crystal Palace, and sundry of his PF. pieces by different artists in their recitals. [G.]

VOLKSLIED, or the early Song of the Ger- man people, has already been treated, with regard both to its development and its influence on the history of music, under the head of SONG. [See vol. iii. p. 617.] It remains, however, to mention the principal existing collections of Volkslieder, whether in manuscript or print, in public or private libraries ; and a list of them is here appended. Some collections of Minne- singers' and Meistersingers' melodies, and likewise some collections of chorales must be included in the list ; because, as the article referred to shows, these different forms of the Song are borrowed from one another and have melodies in common. Collections bearing the names of particular composers must also be mentioned, because many apparently original melodies of composers of the i6th and iyth centuries are in reality well-known Volkslieder, merely har- monised or treated with contrapuntal devices. The list cannot therefore be limited to collec- tions of Volkslieder proper, but care has been taken to enumerate only such as offer examples of the pure Volkslied, melody or verse.

For convenience of reference, the best works on the subject will be included in the last section of the list, viz. Modern Collections of Volkslieder.


A. MSS. from the I0th to the nth century.

1. The Wolfenbttttel MSS. (10th century) ; preserved in the Ducal Library of Wolfenbttttel, and containing some of the oldest secular songs in Germany.

2. The S. Gall Cod. Lat., No. 303 (llth century).

3. Nithart's Song-MSS. with melodies (13th century) ; in the possession of Prof, von der Hagen, and printed by him in his work on the Minnesingers.

4. The Limburg Chronicle (1347 to 1380) ; preserved in the Limburg Library. This MS. (which has been reprinted in 1617, 1720, 1826 and 1860) contains few real Volkslieder, but many knights' and monks' songs.

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