He published some Studies and Dances for the piano, Exercises in Singing, and a few pamphlets, Verfall der Gesangkunst' (Decay of the Art of Singing), etc. He edited a number of classical pianoforte works which are published anony- mously, but distinguished by the letters DAS (Der alte Sclmlmeister). For portrait, see p. 492. MARIE WIECK, daughter of the foregoing, was born in Leipzig about 1830, and educated by her father. She visited England in 1864, and ap- pears to have been the first to perform the Concerto of Robert Schumann, in London, viz. at the Crystal Palace, on March 5 of that year. She now resides in Dresden, and is much esteemed .is a teacher both of the pianoforte and singing. She has edited several of her father's works. [G.]
WIENER, WILHELM, violin player, born at Prague, Aug. 1838 ; learnt violin from Mildner, and harmony from Tomaschek, in the Conserva- torium there. After playing a great deal in Prague, he left it at sixteen for Brussels, and thence came to London, where he has been established ever since as an excellent teacher and player. He held the second violin at the Musical Union for many of its last years, was joint leader of the Philharmonic band with L. Straus for several seasons, and is widely known and esteemed. [G.]
WIENIAWSKI, HENBI, one of the most eminent of modern violinists, was the son of a medi- cal man, and born at Lublin in Poland, July 10, 1835. His great musical talent showed itself so very early that his mother, a sister of the well- known pianist Ed. Wolff, took him at the age of 8 to Paris, where he entered the Conservatoire, and was soon allowed to join Massart's class. As early as 1846, when only u, he gained the first prize for violin-playing. He then made a tour through Poland and Russia, but returned to Paris to continue his studies, more especially in composition. In 1 850 he began to travel with his brother Joseph, a clever pianist, and appeared with great success in most of the principal towns of the Netherlands, France, England and Ger- many. In 1860 he was nominated solo-violinist to the Emperor of Russia, and for the next twelve years resided principally at St. Petersburg. In 1872 he started with Anton Rubinstein for a lengthened tour through the United States, and after Rubinstein's return to Europe, extended his travels as far as California. Returning to Europe (1874), he accepted the post of first pro- fessor of the violin at the Conservatoire of Brus- sels, as Vieuxtemps' successor ; but after a few years quitted it again, and though his health was failing, resumed his old wandering life of travel. An incident connected with this last tour deserves record. During a concert which he gave at Berlin, he was suddenly seized by a spasm and compelled to stop in the middle of a concerto. Joachim, who happened to be among the audience, without much hesitation stepped on to the platform, took up Wieniawski's fiddle, and finished the programme amid the enthu-
��siastic applause of an audience delighted by so spontaneous an act of good fellowship.
Struggling against his mortal disease, Wien- iawski made for Russia, but broke down at Odessa, and was conveyed to Moscow, where he died April 2, 1880.
Wieniawski was one of the most eminent modern violin-players; a great virtuoso, dis- tinguished from the mass of clever players by a striking and peculiar individuality. Technical difficulties did not exist for him he mastered them in early childhood. Left hand and right arm were trained to the highest pitch of perfec- tion, and while the boldness of his execution astonished and excited his audience, the beauty and fascinating quality of his tone went straight to their hearts, and enlisted their sympathy from the first note. The impetuosity of his Slavish temperament was probably the most prominent and most characteristic quality of his style, in which respect he much resembled his friend Rubinstein ; but warm and tender feeling, as well as gracefulness and piquancy, were equally at his command. At the same time he was so thoroughly musical as to be an excellent quartet- player, though perhaps more in sympathy with the modern than with the older masters. He was one of the privileged few who, by sheer force of talent, take hold of an audience and make even the cold critic forget his criticism. Impe- tuous, warm-hearted, witty, an excellent story- teller such was the man, and such were the qualities which shone through his performances. He has been accused of now and then overstep- ping the bounds of good musical taste, and indeed his fiery temperament led him sometimes to a certain exaggeration, especially in quick move- ments, or to such errors as the introduction of an enlarged cadenza in Mendelssohn's concerto ; but who would not readily forgive such pecca- dilloes to so rare and genuine a talent ?
His compositions two concertos, a number of fantasias, pieces de salon, and some studies are not of much importance. The best-known are the fantasia on Russian airs, that on airs from Faust, and a set of studies.
��WILBYE, JOHN, the chief of English madri- gal writers, published in 1598 'The First Set of English Madrigals to 3, 4, 5 and 6 voices,' con- taining 30 compositions, among them the well- known and popular 'Flora gave me fairest flowers,' and 'Lady, when I behold.' In 1601 he contributed a madrigal, 'The Lady Oriana,' to ' The Triumphes of Oriana.' In 1609 he pub- lished The Second Set of Madrigales to 3, 4, 5 and 6 parts, apt both for Voyals and Voyces,' thirty-four compositions, including the beau- tiful madrigals, ' Sweet honey-sucking bee,' 'Down in a valley,' 'Draw on, sweet night,' and 'Stay, Corydon, thou swain.' In 1614 he contributed two pieces to Leighton's ' Teares or Lamentacions, etc.' The above, which constitute the whole of Wilbye's known vocal works, were all printed in score by The Musical Antiquarian Society. He composed some Lessons for the Lute, a volume of which occurred in the sale of